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I have read at various places that Nirvana can't be described or reached by logic or reason. I think that's two questions: 1) described, 2) reached. I think Nirvana is defined as being the end of craving -- not just a temporary pause or lull, but uprooting the "tendencies" and "effluents" which result in the arising of craving -- so changing or undoing ...


5

If you speak words which are (at the foundations) offensive to others, you are not practicing Right Speech very well. However, should you be around friends or alone, the words are just words. "One should speak only that word by which one would not torment oneself nor harm others. That word is indeed well spoken. "One should speak only pleasant ...


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You can take one of the Pariyatti-Patipatti courses at Vipassana Research Institute (VRI). You can contact them for more longer and intensive courses done in partnership with universities. Some additional contact details are available in: Pali Study Program.


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If your language list includes Pali, I recommend the Pali Online School by the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies (there are on-site courses there, too), plus other resources listed this answer to 'A good source to learn the Pali language?'. For learning Chinese, you may want to check out the Humanistic Buddhist Monastic Life Program. Tibetan Language ...


4

Right effort(sammā-vāyāma) in terms of mindfulness is not a forceful , grit your teeth kind of effort. It's a moment by moment, continuous, good cyclical habit kind of effort. Cetanā is Pali for 1- intention 2- volition 3- directionality of mind 4- attraction 5- urge Intention(cetanā) can be defined as a mental factor that moves or urges the mind in a ...


4

I'm afraid any answer to this is going to be speculative, so not a perfect SE question. Here is my theory: Most of the early Mahayana texts were written either in Hybrid Sanskrit or in Gandhari Prakrit because their authors were the descendants of Aryans living in the Gandhara region. Historically, that area has always been much more "sanskritized" than the ...


4

The Buddha redefined the term Brahmin : Yassa pāraṁ apāraṁ vā pārāpāraṁ na vijjati, For whom the near shore, the far shore or both do not exist, vītaddaraṁ visaṁyuttaṁ, tam-ahaṁ brūmi brāhmaṇaṁ. free of anxiety, being detached, that one I say is a brahmin. Dhammapada 385


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Try rather to catch urself in the process of thinking about yourself, that is thinking. If one grouped all thoughts and ideas into one cathegory and called it all "thinking" one could see that the idea of self etc it is merely an idea, a concept that exists in the thinking faculty, just like forms and colors exist when there is seeing, so does ideas of self ...


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... You should not cling to a regional language; you should not reject common usage. This is a summary of the analysis of non-conflict. Arana Vibhanga Sutta A lot more discussions in Language and Discourse by Piya Tan


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You can follow a degree course at the Buddhist & Pali University of Sri Lanka


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Question: For each school of buddhism, what would be the best languages to learn in order to be able to study the bulk of the canon associated to that school in its original and why? Learning Buddhism is like learning Judo. While it might help to know the meaning of some Japanese terms like Ne-waza, Tachi-waza, Nage-waza, etc. In no way it's a mandatory ...


3

How can we know the original meaning of a word with certainty? Yes. I'm sure there's a scholarly answer -- not this from me though. Your mentioning "chakras" reminds of something similar, i.e. the "chi" that we're taught in Tai Chi -- which I learned from, was taught by, a Chinese master. His English wasn't good, even with a translator I ...


3

When possible, the suttas give physical references for clarity: They’re like a flax flower that’s blue, with blue color, blue hue, and blue tint. Or a cloth from Bāraṇasī that’s smoothed on both sides, blue, with blue color, blue hue, and blue tint. --DN33 Note that the Buddha's blue is not our blue. However, the translation and understanding of ...


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Nirvana can't be described or reached by logic or reason Logic and reason are functions of the intellect-mind. Nirvana is beyond the intellect-mind. What is the intellect-mind? The mind that works on and understands mathematics. The mind constructs the equations, then goes on verifying the left and right sides between the "=" are equal; then designs ...


3

Yes, though Pali is a "dead language" in the sense that it has no native speakers left to use it, that doesn't mean it can't be used to communicate with others. I remember Professor Gombrich mentioning that it got used to communicate by monks who did not have any other common language. You can also find examples mentioned in this thread: can people ...


3

The Buddha redefined the term "yañña" (sacrifice), sometimes spelt "yajna" or "yajña". The Buddha discouraged animal sacrifice, human sacrifice, and other extra extravagant ritualistic sacrifices (soma juice drinking etc.), of which I quoted only part of the sutta of AN 4.39 below. The Buddha however praised non-violent ...


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The best way I know to learn Tibetan is attending the 4 years Lotsawa Rinchen Zangpo Translator Programme. Once you completed this training, you commit to translate any FPMT Study Program for at least 2 years, but if you are good at translating (interpreting, actually) you can make it a job for the rest of your life. Another school is Esukhia but it is ...


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I think it's conventionally useful to identify 'the agent' of an action, for example, "Whose turn is it to wash the dishes?" implies there's a someone who'll be doing that (more or less reliably). People (or people's feelings) are also nouned when they're used as the object of a sentence, for example, "I hurt him." Personal identity (...


2

"Yatha butha" and "Thathata" are pali terms for Reality. By referring SuttaCentral website, Definition for the pāli word Yathābhūtaṃ yathābhūtaṃ adv. in truth; in reality; in its real essence. As Butha, Definition for the pāli word Bhucca bhūta] only in cpd. yathā—bhuccaṁ (nt. adv.) as it is, that which really is, really (=yathā bhūtaṁ)...


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In Australia, America and many other countiries, many zen temples offer classes in both English and Chinese (separately).


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A famous example is Thích Nhất Hạnh, who is Vietnamese. He has given talks in several languages, including English and French. There's also Korean Zen, and of course Japanese. There are (and/or have been) many English-speaking Zen teachers in, for example, America.


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In the Triratna Buddhist Community we chant in Pali and English. When we chant in Pali we often do it without a translation for example Buddham saranam gacchami Dhamman saranam gacchami Sangham saranam gacchami translation would be (To the Buddha for refuge I go) (To the Dharma for refuge I go) (To the Sangha for refuge I go) I chanted the refuges and ...


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What you describe is very much the path I traveled myself. I studied Literary Chinese and Japanese to be able to read the original Ch'an and Zen texts and I haven't ever regretted the journey. There are so many concepts that are very hard to translate, and often the words chosen for translation are loaded with cultural and religious connotations that blur ...


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Further to Andrei's answer, I imagine that Sanskrit or equivalent might have been like English is in India today -- i.e. many people know it (as a living language) and use it normally whenever they communicate with someone from/in a different State -- less of a "dead" and priests-and-academics-only language than Latin is now, maybe the bourgeoisie (such as ...


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In the Mahayana perspective, such terms are indeed conventions. But the pronoun itself is not the culprit, the meaning and implications of it is. Try a simple experience: repeat 'I' multiple times in your mind. Eventually, the word seems to have lost meaning, or seems strange. This suggests the word, 'I', and its meaning are separate. I recall the Dalai ...


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