17

As someone who was born into Orthodox Christian faith, has been baptized, attended church occasionally, has read full Bible, both New and Old Testament (BTW the Orthodox version of which includes 11 more "books" than the Protestant, 4 more than the Catholic), who has high respect for the teaching of Christ, appreciation of Father, and deep connection with ...


15

Originally in Hindu yoga and Jainism, Jhana/Dhyana was deliberate thinking on a given topic. The word seems to share its root with Sanskrit verb "dhyayati" (pronounced JAH-YA-TEE), that supposedly means "to think over", "to imagine", "to visualize". Jains, the primary contenders for a honorary title of "precursors to Buddhism", used to recognize four types ...


15

Craving is when the baby reaches with desire for the pacifier and clinging is when the baby has the pacifier and won't let it go. To distinguish craving from clinging, Buddhaghosa uses the following metaphor in this source: "Craving is the aspiring to an object that one has not yet reached, like a thief's stretching out his hand in the dark; clinging ...


13

'Citta' (the C is pronounced as ch in cheetah) is a generic word for mind, including thoughts as well as emotional state. When the Chinese translated Buddhist texts they often used 'shin', the heart-mind, to indicate citta. 'Manas' (both As are pronounced as in Adam) is the "inner eye" that can see thoughts, memories, and one's state of mind (citta). '...


13

No they are not the same, Tibetan Buddhism is a broader concept that subsumes Tibetan Vajrayana. Also, there's non-Tibetan Vajrayana, some still practiced in e.g. Japan. To some degree all schools of Tibetan Buddhism, and particularly Karma Kagyu, recognize three yanas (Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana) as subsequent stages on an individual's path to ...


13

Thoughts are one of the six sense objects; there is no reason to think that they stop when one becomes an arahant. It is quite clear that both the Buddha and arahants did indeed have thoughts after becoming enlightened. E.g.: And the knowledge and vision arose in me: ‘Āḷāra Kālāma died seven days ago.’ I thought: ‘Āḷāra Kālāmaʹs loss is a great one. If he ...


12

The term Hinayana's usage is confused at best. It's mostly used now as a synonym for Theravada along with some other early Buddhist schools, but some people think Theravada needs to be specifically excluded from that group. From Pali Buddhism, Hoffman/Mahinda: It has been a repeated mistake to identify Hinayana with Theravada. But at this juncture the ...


11

Tatha means "truth", "reality" or literally "so", "such". gata is often translated as gone, however from my research it looks like it is a suffix that means "firmly grounded in" or "rooted in" -- as in kayagata smrti "mindfulness rooted in the body". Together this would make Tathagata mean "Firmly established in reality". I personally associate this word ...


11

No, satori is not complete enlightenment, it is an a-ha moment when the practitioner finally realizes "how things are": Seeing his own original nature, he discovers that the ground of this nature is innately free of defilement, and that he himself is originally endowed with the non‐outflow wisdom‐nature which is not a hair's breadth different from ...


11

I personally use the following translations: Paper copies of Bhikkhu Bodhi's translations of Nikayas (for example Majjhima) for nice smooth English rendition. Access To Insight for quick and convenient search. Dharmafarer for in-depth analysis. When in doubt, I do my own translation with a dictionary (Sanskrit, Pali, I also use a number of Pali-Russian ...


10

Navayana is a proposed fourth major branch of Buddhism after Hinayana (sorry not a great term), Mahayana and Vajrayana. I believe it is a term claimed by the Dalit Buddhist movement which I am most familiar with in the context of Dr Ambedkar - in fact I recently have heard the movement is called Ambedkerism. The Buddhist Centre that I practice with is a ...


10

Jhāna, in Theravada Buddhism, refers to the act of meditation: The (popular etym -- ) expln of jhāna is given by Bdhgh at Vism 150 as follows: "ārammaṇ' ûpanijjhānato paccanīka -- jhāpanato vā jhānaŋ," i.e. called jh. from meditation on objects & from burning up anything adverse (PED, p. 286) According to the Pali commentaries, it can be of two types:...


10

Karma is not something one accumulates; this question gets asked so often because, as you say, there is a misconception of it being a 'a solid, substantial' entity. Karma is volition (intention is a bad translation, IMO), or in abhidhamma, the seven javana citta present in an ordinary mind process (i.e. every moment of experience). All this means is that ...


10

In the Cātumā Sutta (Majjhima Nikāya, 67) Buddha talks about four types of fear in the case of Bhikkus just as there are dangers and hazards in a sea like stormy waves, crocodiles, whirlpools, and sharks. Those four fears were temper (ill will against those who instruct them and guide them); gluttony (dissatisfaction with training rules such as those ...


9

As I was just explaining in a comment to one of my answers, the term "Hinayana" is widely used by Tibetan Buddhism teachers to refer to basic/elementary/foundational (and because of this often simplified) aspects of Buddha-Dharma. If you'd go to their lectures, you'd hear this notion of Hinayana-understanding vs. Mahayana-understanding discussed in almost ...


9

Nirodha is a term that is normally translated as 'cessation' or 'stopping'. It's what happens to suffering in the 3rd noble truth, dukkhanirodha (cessation of suffering) and to all of the other elements of the chain of Dependent Arising. The context which you refer to is the state of nirodhasamāpatti (attainment of cessation), saññāvedayitanirodha1 (...


9

As per my dictionaries: Phassa (sanskr. sparça): contact, touch, tangibility, tactile sensation, a momentary union of the sense-object, sense-door, and sense-consciousness. It's a standard term coming all the way back from the Pali Canon and used widely by Theravada and Abhidhamma.


8

Dry insight or bare insight (suddha-vipassana) is the 'direct' way (Pali: ekayano maggo) to insight (nibbana), without jhana meditation practice (i.e. without 'upacara samadhi' or 'appana samadhi'). This direct 'momentary concentration' is called in Pali parikamma samadhi. This is the tradition of Mahasi Sayadaw; U Ba Khin and S.N. Goenka and others. The ...


8

This question is addressed in the Abhaya Sutta from the Buddha himself, on the topic of Right Speech. Your question should fall under "In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be factual, true, beneficial, but unendearing & disagreeable to others, he has a sense of the proper time for saying them." (Abhaya Sutta). From your same link on the ...


8

They are synonymous. Insight is in fact the word that is used to translate the word Vipassana. All schools of Buddhism that talk about meditation talk about Samatha and Vipassana (but of course they'll use the sanskrit names Shamatha and Vipashyana, or their translated terms 止 観 (Chinese Zhi and Guan, Japanese Shi and Kan) or in Tibetan shiné and lhatong. ...


8

There's an article on that subject Dhamma and Non-duality by Bhikkhu Bodhi. The following is basically all direct quotes from that article, except very summarized (I'm extracting sentences and sentence fragments). Non-dual system For the Vedanta, non-duality (advaita) means the absence of an ultimate distinction between the Atman, the innermost self, and ...


8

The word dharma is understood to come from the Sanskrit root dhṛ - in regards to holding or keeping. The word has its history in the vedas, where the meaning is something that holds the world together (i.e. maintains order) - religious hymns, gods, etc. Later texts use the word to refer to the order itself - e.g. "going against dharma", etc. The ...


8

I think "the" Buddha is more normal and more formal. Without "the" sounds to me more casual -- or possibly slightly English-as-a-second-language, as several languages don't use articles. If you think of the word "Buddha" as being a title like "Teacher", well in formal English you'd usually include the article and say ...


7

There are two main interpretations of how karma is accumulated. In Sarvastivada branch of philosophy, past actions can be directly related to new consequences, because fundamentally "everything exists" and only the modus of time changes. As things aren't losing the status of existence, they can cause new things. There is a special additional property (...


7

Vajrayana was practiced in China, Vietnam and Korea. This is often called esoteric Buddhism. Kukyo brought esoteric Buddhist to Japan and founded the Shingon sect. In Russia (well, Kalmykia and Buryatia now) Buddhism was essentially Mongolian Buddhism, which in turn came from Tibet. And in the US, we have modern formulations of Vajrayana like Shambhala. ...


7

From an academic perspective the wikipedia article "Tathāgata" has good information. According to wikipedia: The word's original significance is not known and there has been speculation about it since at least the time of Buddhaghosa, who gives eight interpretations of the word, each with different etymological support, in his commentary on the Digha Nikaya,...


7

The Three characteristics of existence are part of the core teaching of the Buddha and found throughout his teachings. In essence every single compound (i.e. made of the 5 aggregates and/or the four elements) thing has these characteristics inherent in their very existence. When one realizes with their own experiential knowledge that all things we have ...


7

From the Mahaparinibbana Sutta: "And, Ananda, whereas now the bhikkhus (monks) address one another as 'friend,' let it not be so when I am gone. The senior bhikkhus, Ananda, may address the junior ones by their name, their family name, or as 'friend'; but the junior bhikkhus should address the senior ones as 'venerable sir' or 'your reverence.' ...


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