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I was wondering if the samadhi of Patanjali Yoga meant the same thing as the samadhi of Buddhism?

A Buddhist friend told me that no, and that Buddhism had higher states after the nirvikalpa samadhi of yogis. But at the same time when I read the descriptions of the two they look similar to me and the samadhi of Buddhism is also the last stage of the Noble Eightfold Path.

  • Different technique, same samadhi. – Lowbrow Oct 6 at 23:44
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The Patanjali system has the following concepts about Samadhi:

  • Samprajnata Samadhi: one is developing focus on the meditation object but comprehends external stimuli
  • Asamprajnata Samadhi: one has developed focus on the meditation object hence does not comprehend external stimuli
  • Savitarka Samadhi: when one experiences a stimulus this triggers a thought process which one can discriminate and abandone or continue
  • Nirvitarka Samadhi: when one experiences a stimulus one has control over thoughts
  • Savichara Samadhi: thinking is available
  • Nirvichara Samadhi: thinking is unavailable

In Buddhism, there are the following concepts of Samadhi:

  • parikamma samadhi – preliminary concentration
  • upacara samadhi – access concentration
  • appana samadhi – fixed concentration
  • Jhanas - states of samadhi based on the Jhana factors present

Parikamma and upacara samadhi is similar to samprajnata samadhi and appana samadhi is similar to Asamprajnata Samadhi

Vitarka and vichara are Jhana factors. Savitarka indicates there is vitarka and nirvitarka means there is no vitarka and savichara means there is vichara and nirvichara means there is no vichara.

In the Hindu system of samadhi, the object of concentration may be subjected to perversions (vipallasa) hence choose concepts like: permanent, self, pleasant and beautiful. In the Buddhist system, the objects are not subjected to vipallasa.

In the Hindu system, the object of samadhi is always a conceptual (pannatti) object which is which leads to perversions (vipallasa). In Buddhist systems, the objects can be conceptual or real (paramartha). If it is conceptual after developing Jhana one contemplates the object as impermanent, unsatisfactory and not-self.

When the object chosen is is not subjected to perversion, wholesome and based on something real (paramartha), the concentration gained is Samma Samadhi or the right type of samadhi.

  • If I understand correctly, the two samadhi (Hindu and Buddhist) are therefore two "fusions to the Absolute" coming from two different paths? If samma samadhi is nirvana, it is also nirvikalpa samadhi? It is hard to see which Hindu state corresponds to which Buddhist state since the same word can have different meanings in each tradition. Everyone decides to see their object of concentration as they think it really is? Permanent/impermanent, etc. – Kalapa Sep 29 at 13:10
  • Samma Samadhi is the right kind of Samadhi to develop wisdom (Panna). The Hindu systems Samadhi is the end goal. So the Samadhi developed does not help develop Panna. The object should be wholesome, i.e., not something one gets attached or aversed towards, it should not be constructed like an image of a God. Ideally, it should correspond to the 4 Sathipattanas or breath. If not one should see impermanence in the Jhanic state of one does something like Kasina. – Suminda Sirinath S. Dharmasena Sep 29 at 13:33
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Yes. The eight the highest was missing in Veda. They stumbled into 7th. The eight is highest and veda talk of without drowning to highest samadhi. Thats why they stayed on this side of river with border of discriminination. They had ego. In the bliss of samadhi even that ego also dissolve thats what patanjali mean by Samadhi. Extinction of cause or pain without remainder. This is Nirvana. Nirvana means not getting anything but give up everything to Highest lord. Why? Because its not yours. If you not give it up it will taken as complex and one destined to bound by law of karma and rebecoming. Hope this the answer you want. May you be happy! May you give up that!

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I would say no. Buddhist Samadhi is called Samma Samadhi which is achieved by following the Noble Eightfold Path.

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Right samadhi is whatever samadhi there is coming from right view and right effort, which is really just the usual jhanas but seen from right view, right understanding, right doctrine and right effort, ie Samādhibhāvanā http://obo.genaud.net/dhamma-vinaya/pts/an/04_fours/an04.014.wood.pts.htm which is all about restraint, instead of being seen from some wrong understanding created by some puthujjana, including Patanjali. For the buddha, the jhanas are abiding the in the pleasant present life, which are nice, but the right concentration is what makes ''yathā-bhūtaɱ pajānāti.'' ie seeing properly form , consciousness and all that.

Monks, do ye apply yourselves to meditation.

The monk who is meditative knows a thing as it really is.

And what does he know as it really is?

In this connexion he knows as it really is,

'This is ill.'

'This is the arising of ill.'

'This is the ceasing of ill.'

'This is the practice that leads to the ceasing of ill.'

Monks, do ye apply yourselves to meditation.

The monk who is concentrated knows a thing as it really is.

Wherefore, monks, an effort must be made to realize:

'This is ill.'

'This is the arising of ill.'

'This is the ceasing of ill.'

'This is the practice that leads to the ceasing of ill.'

Or way longer,

https://obo.genaud.net/dhamma-vinaya/pali/sn/03_kv/sn03.22.005.pali.bd.htm#p1

"Develop concentration, monks.

A concentrated monk discerns in line with what has come into being.

And what does he discern in line with what has come into being?

The origination[1] and disappearance of form.

The origination and disappearance of feeling...

perception...

fabrications.

The origination and disappearance of consciousness.

"And what is the origination of form...

feeling...

perception...

fabrications?

What is the origination of consciousness?

"There is the case where one enjoys, welcomes, and remains fastened.

And what does one enjoy and welcome, to what does one remain fastened?

One enjoys, welcomes, and remains fastened to form.

As one enjoys, welcomes, and remains fastened to form, there arises delight.

Any delight in form is clinging.

From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming.

From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth.

From birth as a requisite condition, then aging and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair come into play.

Such is the origination of this entire mass of stress and suffering.

"One enjoys, welcomes, and remains fastened to feeling...

perception...

fabrications...

"One enjoys, welcomes, and remains fastened to consciousness.

As one enjoys, welcomes, and remains fastened to consciousness, there arises delight.

Any delight in consciousness is clinging.

From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming.

From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth.

From birth as a requisite condition, then aging and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair come into play.

Such is the origination of this entire mass of stress and suffering.

"This, monks, is the origination of form.

This, the origination of feeling...

perception...

fabrications.

This, the origination of consciousness."

"And what is the disappearance of form...

feeling...

perception...

fabrications?

What is the disappearance of consciousness?

"There is the case where one doesn’t enjoy, welcome, or remain fastened.

And what does one not enjoy or welcome, to what does one not remain fastened?

One doesn’t enjoy, welcome, or remain fastened to form.

As one doesn’t enjoy, welcome, or remain fastened to form, any delight in form ceases.

From the cessation of delight comes the cessation of clinging.

From the cessation of clinging/sustenance, the cessation of becoming.

From the cessation of becoming, the cessation of birth.

From the cessation of birth, then aging and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair all cease.

Such is the cessation of this entire mass of stress and suffering.

"One doesn’t enjoy, welcome, or remain fastened to feeling...

perception...

fabrications...

"One doesn’t enjoy, welcome, or remain fastened to consciousness.

As one doesn’t enjoy, welcome, or remain fastened to consciousness, any delight in consciousness ceases.

From the cessation of delight comes the cessation of clinging.

From the cessation of clinging/sustenance, the cessation of becoming.

From the cessation of becoming, the cessation of birth.

From the cessation of birth, then aging and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair all cease.

Such is the cessation of this entire mass of stress and suffering.

"This, monks, is the disappearance of form.

This, the disappearance of feeling...

perception...

fabrications.

This, the disappearance of consciousness."

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