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In the context of the sutta below, what does the following phrase mean? - "whatever bad deed I did here in the past with this deed-born body is all to be experienced here. It will not follow along" (yaṃ kho me idaṃ kiñci pubbe iminā karajakāyena pāpakammaṃ kataṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ idha vedanīyaṃ; na taṃ anugaṃ bhavissatī’ti)

This phrase seems to apply to one who practises the Brahmaviharas.

How is it different for one who does not practise the Brahmaviharas (or the Dhamma in general, for that matter)?

What does deed-born body (karajakāya) really mean?

Also related is the phrase "A woman or a man cannot take this body with them when they go. Mortals have mind as their core." (Itthiyā vā, bhikkhave, purisassa vā nāyaṃ kāyo ādāya gamanīyo. Cittantaro ayaṃ, bhikkhave, macco.). What does this mean?

From AN 10.219:

“What do you think, bhikkhus, if a youth were to develop the liberation of mind by loving-kindness (and also, compassion, altruistic joy and equanimity) from his childhood on, would he do a bad deed?”

“No, Bhante.”

“Could suffering affect him if he does no bad deed?” “No, Bhante. For on what account could suffering affect one who does no bad deed?”

“A woman or a man should develop this liberation of mind by loving-kindness (and also, compassion, altruistic joy and equanimity). A woman or a man cannot take this body with them when they go. Mortals have mind as their core.

“The noble disciple understands: ‘Whatever bad deed I did here in the past with this deed-born body is all to be experienced here. It will not follow along.’ When the liberation of mind by loving-kindness (and also, compassion, altruistic joy and equanimity) has been developed in this way, it leads to non-returning for a wise bhikkhu here who does not penetrate to a further liberation.

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What does deed-born body (karajakāya) really mean?

It appears to mean "body born of causing".

It's a compound, e.g. kara ("causing") ja ("born of") kāya ("body").

The PTS dictionary entry for Kara includes ...

Kara (p. 195) Kara Kara [fr. kṛ] 1. (adj.) ( -- ˚) producing, causing, forming, making, doing

... and ...

ja "born of kamma" in karaja -- kāya the body sprung from action, an expression always used in a contemptible manner, therefore=the impure, vile, low body A v.300; J i.5; Vism 287, 404; DA i.113, 217, 221; DhA i.10; iii.420; DhsA 403. karaja -- rūpa Vism 326.

Also ...

Ja (p. 277) Ja Ja ( -- ˚) [adj. -- suffix from jan, see janati; cp. ˚ga; gacchati] born, produced, sprung or arisen from.

So it's literally or etymologically kara-ja-kaya i.e. "body born from kara", where kara is defined as "producing, causing, forming, making, doing".

I don't see exactly why kara and kamma are being equated, but they're obviously pretty similar.

Given this translation ...

Whatever bad deeds I have done in the past with this deed-born body I will experience here.
yaṃ kho me idaṃ kiñci pubbe iminā karajakāyena pāpakammaṃ kataṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ idha vedanīyaṃ

... I think the literal word-for-word translation is something like ...

Whatever my something in-the-past I have with this body-born-of-causing bad-deeds done, entirely in-this-world I will know them.

Perhaps you might as well just read it as kaya (i.e. body).

There are other bits in the sutta which just refer to body, e.g. ...

For neither women nor men take this body with them when they go.
Itthiyā vā, bhikkhave, purisassa vā nāyaṃ kāyo ādāya gamanīyo.

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Ven. Bodhi's note citing Comy's explanation:
"[The noble disciple] understands: "Whatever bad deed I did here in the past with this deed-born body is all to be experienced here"[2190] Karajakaya. I translate the expression literally but it may imply much the same thing as such English expressions as 'this mortal body' or 'this corporeal body.' DOP sv kara, says: 'A body produced by action, the physical body.' SN 12:37, II 65,1, speaks of the body as 'old kamma' (Puranamidam - kammam). The Chinese parallel has nothing that corresponds to this term.

" It will not follow along"[2191] Mp: 'By means of loving-kindness, the feeling that would have been experienced upon rebirth is cut off, and thus it does not follow one along. This is the reflection of a noble person who is a stream-enterer or a once-returner.' Presumably, the bad kamma is all to be experienced here (Sabbam tam idha vedaniyam), in this life, and will not follow along (na tam anugam bhavissati) because his next rebirth will be in the form realm, where there is no painful experience, and he will attain nibbana in the form realm without returning to this world.

"A woman or a man should develop this liberation of mind by loving-kindness. A woman or a man cannot take this body with them when they go. Mortals have mind as their core"[2189] Cittantaro ayam bhikkhave macco. Mp: 'They have mind as their cause, or their interior is due to mind (cittakarano, atha va citten-eva antariko). For with the mind at rebirth that follows without interval the mind at death, one becomes a deva, a hell-being, or an animal.'

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If after liberation rather that to find something to grasp on either:

It simply empathizes, approves, that what ever body/kaya/stand is taken on comes into being by deeds (kamma). Nothing that one should puzzle one thought into and and "end" up in papanca anyway.

The certain sequences deal also with cases where one still clings to a merely mental kaya, stand. That is why there is no final liberation at this point.

"Just" cetovimutti but try it, right here and now (Brahmavihara), rather to seek for another kaya. It's a Sublime host, that of the Brahma.

...it leads to non-returning for a wise person here who does not penetrate to a further liberation

(Not given for trade, exchange, stacks but for getting independent from relations and bonds.)

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First, AN 10.219 appears to be fake dhamma because loving-kindness cannot end the suffering of birth, aging, illness & death. The following verse appears to be adhamma:

What do you think, bhikkhus, if a youth were to develop the liberation of mind by loving-kindness from his childhood on, would he do a bad deed?”

“No, Bhante.”

“Could suffering affect him if he does no bad deed?” “No, Bhante. For on what account could suffering affect one who does no bad deed?”

However, about past kamma, AN 10.219 appears to correctly say:

Bhikkhus, I do not say that there is a termination of volitional kamma that has been done and accumulated so long as one has not experienced its results, and that may be in the present moment, or in the near future, or on some subsequent occasion

The noble disciple understands: ‘Whatever bad deed I did here in the past with this deed-born body is all to be experienced here. It will not follow along [into the future].’ When the liberation of mind by loving-kindness has been developed in this way, it leads to non-returning for a wise bhikkhu here who does not penetrate to a further liberation.

This noble disciple, bhikkhus, who is thus devoid of longing, devoid of ill will, unconfused, clearly comprehending, ever mindful, dwells pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with compassion … with a mind imbued with altruistic joy … with a mind imbued with equanimity, likewise the second quarter, the third quarter, and the fourth quarter. Thus above, below, across, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he dwells pervading the entire world with a mind imbued with equanimity, vast, exalted, measureless, without enmity, without ill will. He understands thus: ‘Previously, my mind was limited and undeveloped, but now it is measureless and well developed. No measurable kamma remains or persists there.’

In other words, the results of "past deeds" were experienced as the "five hindrances"; that we cleansed; per the below:

And what is the nutriment for the five hindrances? You should say: ‘The three kinds of misconduct.’

AN 10.61

What is correct in AN 10.219 is explained in SN 12.37 and SN 35.146:

Bhikkhus, this group [of aggregates: "kaya"] is not yours, nor does it belong to others. This is old kamma, to be seen as mentally constructed by [past] volition, as something to be felt [in the present].

.............

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