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In oral study system (reciting and memorizing)...

I definitely sure according to Mahasatipatthanasutta's structure "aparam" means "next step". For an example, after the practitioner meditated the previous body (breath) in (entire) body (in sitting posture), next step when the practitioner is going, he is clearly understanding "I am walking (with clearly understanding in breath, 32 organs, 4 elements, etc.)" In the blanket is omitted as understood from the previous Pabba in oral study tradition.

Niddharana (list) is the meaning of the sattamii vibhatti of kaaye (entire body), kaayaanupassi and kaayasmim (body's part), vedanaasu, citte, cittasmim, dhammesu.

"Puna ca" means another Pabba.

Vasi (practice to be professional) is objective of internal, external, internal&external, iriyaapathapabba, and sampajaanapabba which next step from sitting-iriyaapatha in aanapanapabba (and other Pabba).

So, I am not sure of "and further", "again" meaning in all translations. According to each Sutta's context and history, MahasatipatthanaSutta is for no-unawesome-mind-practitioner or attained jhana practitioner (vipassanayaanika), and KaayagatasatiSutta is for newbie jhana practitioner (samathayaanika) and Anapanassati is samatha, so I quoted from KaayagatasatiSutta...

[294] Kathaṃ bhāvitā ca bhikkhave kāyagatā sati kathaṃ bahulīkatā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā . idha bhikkhave bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā . so satova assasati sato passasati . dīghaṃ vā assasanto dīghaṃ assasāmīti pajānāti dīghaṃ vā passasanto dīghaṃ passasāmīti pajānāti . Rassaṃ vā assasanto rassaṃ assasāmīti pajānāti rassaṃ vā passasanto rassaṃ passasāmīti pajānāti . sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati . Passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmīti sikkhati passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmīti sikkhati . tassa evaṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato ye gehasitā sarasaṅkappā te pahīyanti . Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodibhoti 1- samādhiyati evampi bhikkhave bhikkhu kāyagataṃ satiṃ bhāveti.

[295] Puna caparaṃ bhikkhave bhikkhu gacchanto vā gacchāmīti pajānāti ṭhito vā ṭhitomhīti pajānāti nisinno vā nisinnomhīti pajānāti sayāno vā sayānomhīti pajānāti . yathā yathā vā panassa kāyo paṇihito hoti tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti . Tassa evaṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato ye gehasitā sarasaṅkappā te pahīyanti . tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva Cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodibhoti samādhiyati evampi bhikkhave bhikkhu kāyagataṃ satiṃ bhāveti.

@Footnote: 1 Ma. Yu. ekodi hoti.

Thaanissaro translation...

"There is the case where a monk — having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building — sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect and setting mindfulness to the fore. Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

"Breathing in long, he discerns, 'I am breathing in long'; or breathing out long, he discerns, 'I am breathing out long.' Or breathing in short, he discerns, 'I am breathing in short'; or breathing out short, he discerns, 'I am breathing out short.' He trains himself, 'I will breathe in sensitive to the entire body.' He trains himself, 'I will breathe out sensitive to the entire body.' He trains himself, 'I will breathe in calming bodily fabrication.' He trains himself, 'I will breathe out calming bodily fabrication.' And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body.

"''Furthermore'', when walking, the monk discerns, 'I am walking.' When standing, he discerns, 'I am standing.' When sitting, he discerns, 'I am sitting.' When lying down, he discerns, 'I am lying down.' Or however his body is disposed, that is how he discerns it. And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body.

Do "and further", "again", surely mean "next step"?

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More like 'and deeper than that'. You will find that the majority, perhaps all, lists in the Dhamma are progressions. Each further step if followed opens up the Dhamma further and is closer to the goal:

  • going from minding the body, to minding the sensations, to minding mental states to minding the Dhamma
  • minding the fundamental aspects of the body (earth, water, firelight, wind), then postures, then movements, then destiny as a corps
  • ditto the internals of minding sensations (worldly unpleasant to unworldly neither unpleasant nor unpleasant), mental states (from thoroughly bound up to freed or not), and the Dhamma (from noting involvement to understanding through the Four truths)
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  • Is "and deeper than that" common known as "furthermore" ? (My English is not good)
    – Bonn
    Jan 21 '20 at 14:05
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    "Furthermore" might imply a mere sequence like 1-2-3 i.e. the links of a chain (though it's also used by people who trying to mention every aspect of a topic). "Deeper than" implies a step-by-step teaching, for example walking into an ocean. A synonym for "deep" is "profound" (having or showing great knowledge or insight), an antonym is "superficial" (existing or occurring at or on the surface), it also implies "immersion" (deep mental involvement in something).
    – ChrisW
    Jan 21 '20 at 16:11
  • Both of you give me great answers. It's not only the answer, but I can feel of the real effort in studies in your mind. Thank you so very much. Bhavanaaya paccayo hotu, Nibbanassa paccayo hotu.
    – Bonn
    Jan 21 '20 at 20:48
  • @Mike Some of the features of this site -- e.g. ability to edit your own posts, comment on other people's posts, and use the separate "chat" feature -- depend on your using a "registered" user account (and/or you continue to be welcome to posts an answer without registering).
    – ChrisW
    Jan 23 '20 at 13:52
  • The sequence will appear clearer if you combine KaayagatasatiSutta (Samatha for beginner) with MahaasatiipatthaanaSutta (Vipassana for enlightenment). The context is very strict, but it's hard to understand by reading. I recite (after memorized) it for 8 years before getting it.
    – Bonn
    Jan 23 '20 at 14:20
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I don't think the satipatthana sutta is describing a progression. puna caparaṃ is used throughout the Buddha's teaching to connect multiple ideas in a list. For example, in the Mahaparinibbāna Sutta:

“pañcime, gahapatayo, ādīnavā dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā. katame pañca? idha, gahapatayo, dussīlo sīlavipanno pamādādhikaraṇaṃ mahatiṃ bhogajāniṃ nigacchati. ayaṃ paṭhamo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.

puna caparaṃ, gahapatayo, dussīlassa sīlavipannassa pāpako kittisaddo abbhuggacchati. ayaṃ dutiyo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.

I don't think it is used to mean "next step". In the above example, as with many other examples, it certainly would be strange to think of it as describing a progression.

PED says:

The phrase puna c' aparaŋ "and again something else" stands on the same level as the phrase aparo pi (apare pi), with which one may compare the parallel expressions puna -- divase: aparadivase all of which show the close relation between pi puna, apara

In the satipatthana sutta there are many different practices, some samatha and some vipassana, and it doesn't seem reasonable that one should necessarily practice them consecutively instead of concurrently or alternatively. Notice that puna ca paraṃ is only used for items within kāya and dhammā because there are multiple sections. It's really more a way of listing, I think, rather than connecting sections.

As the satipatthana sutta commentary says:

The Blessed One's exposition of the Arousing of Mindfulness is similar to the action of a worker in mat and basket weaving who wishing to make coarse and fine mats, boxes, cases, and the like, should make those goods after getting a mammoth bamboo, splitting it into four, and reducing each of the parts to strips.

(Soma, trans.)

One would think if it was meant to be a strict linear progression, the commentary would make some mention of that. Instead, the commentary describes, for example, using mindfulness of postures in between formal meditation, which seems reasonable.

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  • Welcome back. Mike Olds (who uses no-reputation unregistered accounts) wanted to ask you a question -- and posted that as a new answer which Andrei deleted but which you can still see. Andrei reposted it as an edit to Mike's answer (instead of as a comment under your question) -- if you'd like to answer Mike you could comment under Mike's answer.
    – ChrisW
    Jan 23 '20 at 13:48
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    Thank you, Chris. I don't really have anything to say to that, my answer stands, and I'm not looking to debate. Jan 23 '20 at 22:03

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