I think the closest fit to dukkha in English is the word 'discontent'. The essential idea behind dukkha is a mismatch between what is and what ought to be. To use the classic examples, we think we should have been born into a better condition; we think we should always be healthy; we think we should always be young and vital; we think we should live forever.....
There are a few others that I know of too ...
... see also English (or other European) translations of Pali Canon (plus various books).
IMO the (translated) English words change (from one translation to the next), because a word of Pali ...
As i understand it Dukkha can be derived from the Sanskrit kha, one meaning of which is some sort of opening, ie 'the axle-hole of a wheel', and the antithetic prefix Duk. Meaning that if you were given a wheel to try for a fit and having tried putting it on your chariot axle you would see that the wheel's 'kha' is a bad fit. Someone would then ask you if ...
I'm not sure who wrote the short introduction at the top of the Dukkha page of AccessToInsight.org but it is a very appropriate comment to your question:
No single English word adequately captures the full depth, range, and
subtlety of the crucial Pali term dukkha. Over the years, many
translations of the word have been used ("stress,"
The step before getting Nimitta can be dodged depending on the practitioner's abilities. Actually, it is not hard for the high abilities practitioner to do step by step or dodge.
Notice: I use the associated Suttas. And most of what I refer to is in the same sutta. I don't connect Sutta by my idea. I do it on the context. And there are many people from the ...
I mainly use accesstoinsight.org and suttacentral.net. Another good source is themindingcentre.org. For the Dhammapada, tipitaka.net is good. A new website is dhammatalks.org.
SuttaCentral has more suttas translated to English compared to any other source, as far as I can see. You can find many uncommon suttas translated.
Both SuttaCentral and ...
I hope you don't mind if I give you an answer through different angle(Islamic angle).
'Sukkha means good news and dukkha means warnings'
We have sent you ˹O Prophet˺ only as a deliverer of good news and a
warner to all of humanity, but most people do not know - Quran 34:28
In Islam, every messenger which was sent by God came with Sukkha and dukkha.
Of the modern translators Thanissaro's & Bodhi's translations are semantically most accurate but they are both not without mistakes as i see it.
Most peculiar to Thanissaro's translation is;
'Frames of Reference' for 'Satipatthana' is not a good translation. Sati is close to 'to keep in mind'.
the occasional use of 'stress' for dukkha.
translating bhava ...
Interesting & good question. Maybe better to read both! Certainly both imply that they're 'correct', yet they differ, so that means one, or both, have errors, even though that's a fairly prolific text. And both sites may have material which isn't avalable on the other site. 'Good' may be somewhat subjective, but neither seem perfect. For example, ...
In the Sutta it is made quite obvious that jhana are not only the type of Jhana that Ajahn Brahm talks about;
Having folded my legs crosswise and straightened my body, I establish mindfulness in front of me. Then, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, I enter and dwell in the first jhāna, which consists of rapture and pleasure ...
Yes, if that Dhamma-Thinking is arising continuously without five strings, without five hindrances, and with understanding the real reality, more than trillion times in a second, with it's real relation.
However, most people are thinking of Dhamma with five hindrances in between because they have not enough concentration meditation power, so their mind can't ...
The two kinds of debt can be found in the Ina Sutta.
The first kind of debt is that of money and material possessions:
"Monks, for one who partakes of sensuality, poverty is suffering in
"And a poor, destitute, penniless person gets into debt. For one who
partakes of sensuality, getting into debt is ...
Additional site for sutta crossreferencing.