5

Good question. Nirvana/Nibbana is not a state of mind, rather it's a quality or an aspect that is always present regardless of any conditions, but even though it's always present it is not always seen. The state of being aware of the ever-present N is dependent on conditions while the N itself is not. You know this quality of mind that watches everything ...


4

Nibbana is experienced when the mind (including consciousness) is free of defilements. So, there is no permanent cessation of consciousness for the living arahant, unless you mean the cessation of defiled consciousness. This is also known as Nibbana element with residue left or Unbinding property with fuel remaining, from Iti 44. The residue or fuel ...


3

I don't know why they're called or translated as "fetters of becoming" instead of just "fetters". The Pali word for "fetters" seems to be saṁyojana -- I don't know whether that same word is also translated "fetters of becoming", or whether for example there's also another word (a compound word) that's used sometimes ...


3

The nidanas are described in SN 12.2. Here vinnana is 6-fold sense-consciousness, which is the stock description in the suttas. https://suttacentral.net/sn12.2/en/bodhi


2

Aging & death are defined as follows: And what, bhikkhus, is aging-and-death? The aging of the various beings in the various orders of beings, their growing old, brokenness of teeth, greyness of hair, wrinkling of skin, decline of vitality, degeneration of the faculties: this is called aging. The passing away of the various beings from the various ...


2

In Buddhism there are two elements: conditioned and unconditioned, per MN 115. There are these two elements: Dve imā, ānanda, dhātuyo— the conditioned element and the unconditioned element. saṅkhatādhātu, asaṅkhatādhātu. When a mendicant knows and sees these two elements, Imā kho, ānanda, dve dhātuyo yato jānāti passati— they’re qualified to be called ‘...


2

This wiki page link is not a great translation and it is easy to be confused if you don't understand what is being negated/refuted by this line of reasoning: the inherent existence of a chariot. If you understand what is being negated, then the fourth point becomes: "There is no inherently existing chariot which depends on its parts" and the simile ...


2

There is an explanation of Buddhist conditionality in the Bundles of Reed Sutta (SN 12.67) below, together with an analogy. Name-and-form (mind-body) is a condition for consciousness. Consciousness is a condition for name-and-form. If any one of these ceases, the other will cease too. This is like two bundles of reed leaning on each other. However, the rest ...


2

Science deals with the physically measurable. Buddhist teachings focus on the end of suffering. Both discuss causality, but in different ways. The scientific method emphasizes reproducibility of results for a given hypothesis. In schools we can all drop large and small weights to observe they fall at the same speed. However, we have to be very very careful ...


2

MN60 If those ascetics and brahmins who say that there are totally formless meditations are correct, it is possible that I will be guaranteed rebirth among the gods who are formless and made of perception. Now, owing to form, bad things are seen: taking up the rod and the sword, quarrels, arguments, and fights, accusations, divisive speech, and lies. But ...


2

There is a cyclic dependency between ignorance and defilements (also called taints or fermentation). Ignorance originates from defilement. Ignorance ceases when defilement ceases. Āsavasamudayā avijjāsamudayo, āsavanirodhā avijjānirodho Defilement originates from ignorance. Defilement ceases when ignorance ceases. Avijjāsamudayā āsavasamudayo, avijjānirodhā ...


1

It's wrong translation. "tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ" is chatthi-vibhatti (of), not catutthi-vibhatti (for). So, it is "Yā (jāti) tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ (of the various beings)", it is not "Yā (jāti) tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ (for the various beings)". It's like "your birth" is not "for birth". The subject of the ...


1

The formula of SN 26 is: “Mendicants, the arising, continuation, rebirth, and manifestation of X is the arising of suffering, the continuation of diseases, and the manifestation of old age and death. The cessation of X is the cessation of suffering, the settling of diseases, and the ending of old age and death.” If you read the whole of SN 26 (Uppada-...


1

Please don't assume this to be a linear progression. “Now we understand the Venerable Sāriputta’s statement thus: ‘Name-and-form, friend Koṭṭhita, is not created by oneself … but rather, with consciousness as condition, name-and-form comes to be.’ Now we also understand the Venerable Sāriputta’s other statement thus: ‘Consciousness, friend Koṭṭhita, is not ...


1

Consciousness here refers to the six senses consciousnesses. Your confusion occurs because your mind wants to view paticcasamuppada within a linear trajectory. It is more accurately described as a mass, hence the various relevant suttas closing with... "Such is the arising/origination of this entire mass of suffering.”


1

OP: why is the nidāna of jarā- maraṇa replaced by the more general term dukkha in the concept of lokuttara paṭicca-samuppāda? Suffering (stress) is a more general term while disease and death are specific forms of suffering. This sutta uses the general form of dukkha, because that's the basis for connecting the lokiya paticcasamuppada to the lokuttara ...


1

The Upanisā Sutta refers to suffering as the condition for faith because the Buddha has taught suffering experienced can be ended, for example, as follows from MN 38: He [the person discussed above], hearing the Dhamma, gains conviction (faith) in the Tathāgata and reflects: 'Household life is confining, a dusty path. Life gone forth is the open air. It ...


1

However, I am unable to make out how ‘Suffering’ forms the supporting condition for ’Faith’ to arise. Could this be clarified? People trust in paṭicca-samuppāda and the PaṭiccaSamuppāda-Blessed One because they feel suffering and want to get out of suffering. If they never been effected by the suffering, they will laugh without any trust when they hear ...


1

Here's a Mahayana explanation. I suppose you were thinking about the twelve nidanas and how the whole chain, including vijnana, ceases with cessation of ignorance? Please know that "vijnana" is strictly speaking not consciousness. That's a very approximate translation. Depending on context vijnana should be translated as either "experience of ...


1

From Milindapanha: -- “What is it, Nàgasena, that is reborn?” -- “Mind and matter (namarupa).” -- “Is it this very mind and matter that is reborn?” -- “No, it is not, but by this mind and matter deeds are done and because of those deeds another mind and matter is reborn; but that mind and matter is not thereby released from the results of its previous deeds....


1

Re. the first point. There's a truism according to scientific logic, "correlation doesn't imply causation" -- i.e. that "if I do X and then Y happens" that doesn't mean that "X caused Y". The answer to "what's the cause?" can become debatable in fields like sociology or politics. Sometimes the question is important -- ...


1

I wonder if this might be helpful... Words superimpose a vaneer-like structure over our reality and this becomes the haze of naming and forming. It is a major component of ignorance and becomes the structure from which guides the superficiality of our existence. It can be very tricky to peer outside of this structure. When we call the chariot a 'chariot', ...


1

To put it in simplest terms free will arises , changes and vanishes. You should therefore realize free will is not mine, I am not free will , free will is not my self. Having said that you devote yourself to finding the root cause of suffering and eliminating it.


1

Free Will. Someone might say: "If all phenomena are conditionally arisen, then Buddhism is a form of fatalism, for we have no free will to control our destiny." Such a statement would not be correct. Will is volition (cetanaa), a mental state, determined ethically by its root condition (hetu paccaya). If the root is unwholesome, we can either ...


1

When there are multiple causes it is difficult to say what causes what... however we can say what are the dependent things needed to make the outcome realize. For example in order to generate fire we must have fuel , we must have spark of fire .... fuel and spark both are necessary ... fuel and spark can be described as causes for fire... but a better word ...


1

The Pali word for 'cause' is 'hetu', which means direct cause, such as oxygen & hydrogen are the cause of water. An example of the use of 'hetu' is SN 22.82, which says the four elements of earth, wind, fire & water are the cause of the physical body aggregate: The four great elements, bhikkhu, are the cause and condition for the manifestation of ...


1

Though the links in the chain of Dependent Origination are cyclical in nature, Avijjā is the one that can be said to be the root of deception and the primal cause of the infinite repetitions of the cycle. Also, it is present in each and every link all the time. Correct. Every link includes ignorance within it. For example, the consciousness link does not ...


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