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Good householder, there had been serial Buddhas before our Gotama Buddha. In a world/cosmos-period there might appear a Samma-Sambuddha who is capable to point out the way out of suffering, Samsara. When there is no full self-awakened Buddha and the Dhamma (his teaching) is unknown, there may appear so called Paccekabuddhas (Privat-Buddhas), who, althought ...


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Every "official" Chan/Zen master (that is, a master recognized and authorized by an older master) keeps a list of his ancestral teachers going back all the way to the Buddha Shakyamuni. I have such list for my Zen Master for example. Every Tibetan lineage keeps a list of teachers that goes to a Buddha (not necessarily Shakyamuni). Many Tibetan texts begin ...


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Mendis refers to “Theravāda tradition”. His source is the introduction to the Atthasālinī, which was compiled by Buddhaghosa in about 400 AD based on earlier texts that no longer exist. The Abhidhamma is a framework that consolidates teachings from more than 10,000 Suttas. This framework follows the Theravāda perspective. IMHO, the scholar’s view that the ...


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From this YouTube video entitled "The Theravada Abhidhamma with Bhikkhu Bodhi (Class #1, 5 Mar 2018)", Ven. Bodhi, the famous translator and scholar of the Pali Canon, explained the account of modern scholarship, which he accepts to be more accurate, compared to the traditional account: That is the traditional view, but modern scholarship takes a ...


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https://www.britannica.com/topic/Bka-gyur says, Bka’-’gyur, (Tibetan: “Translation of the Buddha-Word”), also spelled Bkaḥ-ḥgyur, Kagyur, Kan-gyur, or Kanjur, the collection of Tibetan Buddhist sacred literature representing the “Word of the Buddha”—as distinct from the Bstan-’gyur (“Translation of Teachings”), or collection of commentaries and ...


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Is polytheism dharmic or adharmic? Dhammic If it is dharmic, what is its role within Buddhism? Different level of consciousness leads to different rebirth. If it is adharmic, why is this the case? NA What is the scriptural basis for your answer? There are many suttas with the Buddha encountering Deva (Gods) in Samyutta Nikaya, such as in the Devata Samyutta ...


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What is the source of the cycle of life/death in the scripture , Does it have references in the Pali canon? From SN 15.2: At Savatthı. “Bhikkhus, this samsara is without discoverable beginning. A first point is not discerned of beings roaming and wandering on hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving. Suppose, bhikkhus, a man would reduce this great ...


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I found this interesting passage from this Wikipedia page: There are several rules in the Theravada monastic code by which a bhikkhu is "defeated" - he is no longer a bhikkhu even if he continues to wear robes and is treated as one. Every ordination ceremony in Theravada Buddhism is performed by ten bhikkhus to guard against the possibility of the ...


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The Six qualities of the Dhamma: Svakkhato: The Dhamma is not a speculative philosophy, but is the Universal Law found through enlightenment and is preached precisely. Therefore it is Excellent in the beginning (Sila — Moral principles), Excellent in the middle (Samadhi — Concentration) and Excellent in the end (Panna — Wisdom), Samditthiko: The Dhamma is ...


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Where did Buddhism get this from? Why, it got from the Buddha's direct experience, of course. The Buddha spoke in MN 4: "When the mind was thus concentrated, purified, bright, unblemished, rid of defilement, pliant, malleable, steady, & attained to imperturbability, I directed it to the knowledge of recollecting my past lives. I recollected my ...


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Dependent origination includes death and rebirth: DN15:2.1: When asked, ‘Is there a specific condition for old age and death?’ you should answer, ‘There is.’ If they say, ‘What is a condition for old age and death?’ you should answer, ‘Rebirth is a condition for old age and death.’ The sutta continues: DN15:3.1: So: name and form are conditions for ...


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Since the Chandogya Upanishad was written a few hundred years before Gautama Buddha, there's no doubt that OM is older than the Buddha. It doesn't matter whether it's a hundred years older or a thousand years older. As far as I know, OM does not appear anywhere in the Pali suttas or the other Early Buddhist Texts. Also, Gautama Buddha himself had never used ...


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The Buddha responded to the questions of others. Writing a book to present a position is a ‘modern’ undertaking. The Buddha’s oral teachings were memorized (thus all the enumerations that exist in Buddhist doctrines because it made memorization easier) because his was predominately an oral culture, but also because the teachings were not a static doctrine, ...


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We can get a glimpse from Wikipedia article on Vedas: The Vedas were written down only after 500 BCE,[101][66][20] but only the orally transmitted texts are regarded as authoritative, given the emphasis on the exact pronunciation of the sounds.[68] Witzel suggests that attempts to write down the Vedic texts towards the end of 1st millennium BCE were ...


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The four nikayas do not mention "writing". However they do mention "reciting" many times. One mention, in particular is quite interesting: AN8.20:6.4: It’s impossible, mendicants, it can’t happen that a Realized One could recite the monastic code in an impure assembly. In another sutta, the Buddha instructs: DN29:17.1: So, Cunda, you ...


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The way the Pali Canon was transmitted was by oral tradition. The composition is in a poetic form, using mnemonic formulae for memorization and recitation. The recitation would have also served a ritualistic or ceremonial purpose. Even the tradition says that in the First Buddhist Council, Ananda and Upali recited the suttas and the vinaya. Please see "...


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Gautama Buddha had various teachers in using different paths to seek his spiritual goal, but in each case he found those other ways defective. He wished to find a way to end the suffering of all beings, so after trying those other paths, he sat under the Bodhi Tree with the firm intention to not get up until he had found what he was looking for. And he ...


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1st, your use of the word "dharma" is incorrect. "Dharma" is not something exclusive to Buddhism. Most or all Indian religions use the word "dharma". "Dharma" means "bearer/supporter" and refers to any doctrine or thing that purports to support or maintain social order (such as the dharmas of social duties &...


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I will tell what i know of Theravada. Afaik Theravadin Abhidhamma order was established on the Ceylon, Sri Lanka south of India 300 BC, this was still in the period Buddha proclaimed to be of True Dhamma and the culture was thriving for about 1500 years. No other of the early lineages from the true Dhamma period and no Vibhajavada school in particular ...


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According to Wikipedia, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Pali canon there are 10.000 sutras. According to tradition, Ananda recited by heart all 10.000 sutras after the death of Gautama and they have been memoriesed and recited regularly by monks, for many centuries, before they were written down. That is just a subset. Actually, we have been reciting and ...


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In the University I knew many people who knew by heart a book or two: The books that we used most often. When we talk about them we either quoted exactly what we all have read, or if someone deviated from the exact words of the quoted passage, few other usually correct him... So, books used and discussed every day for year or two by a group of people are ...


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I’m asking this because if I try to image today’s monks memorise and recite 10.000 sutras it seems something out of reality. My guess is that only very few people would have the ability to do that. So I struggle to imagine how they could have done it for centuries. But maybe I am missing something and there is an explanation that I cannot see. Actually 10,...


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The Bhavacakra (the "wheel of becoming") is associated with the 12 Nidanas -- i.e. with paṭiccasamuppāda -- as well as with the Three Poisons, the various realms of existence, and so on. I think the "cycle" is a graphical representation or summary of several elements of doctrine. Wikipedia says, The Theravada-tradition does not have a ...


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ॐ is from संस्कृतम् Sanskrit, which was likely written in some form from c.1500BC & earlier; it was used, or whats sometimes called a preVedic form, before The Mahabharata & RigVeda, c. 800BC or so. There were & are various styles of it and its the basis in more & lesser part for many languages in the world. Some scholars would consider some ...


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Like you said gurus exist only in hinduism and jainism. Gurus are complete non-sense in buddhism because the bikkhus move around a lot, so they cannot have followers (bikkhus or lay people). For instance, a lay person (buddhist or not) who gives food to a bikkhu may never see this bhikku ever again after a few days of offering. However a bikkhu may have ...


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Have there been any Buddhist texts addressing geometry, calculation or abstract algebra? I don't know much about the History of Mathematics. This History of 0 (zero) mentions Pingala -- that's "Maurya or post-Maurya" era, perhaps they were mostly-all kind of Buddhists then. I read elsewhere that, later (e.g. at the time of the Islamic invasion), it was ...


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Sources Consulted for the PTS Pali Nikāya Texts Dīgha Nikāya Edited by Vol. 1, 1890: T.W. Rhys Davids and J.E. Carpenter Vol. 2, 1903: T.W. Rhys Davids and J.E. Carpenter Vol. 3, 1911: J.E. Carpenter Ph = M = B - the Phayre MS. of the India Office Library (Burm. ch) Bm Burmese ms, royal Mandalay Collection, India Office, No. 40 Br Printed Burmese text, ...


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