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DN 2 has descriptions of various shramanic teachings at the time of the Buddha including by the following teachers: Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, Ajita Kesakambalī, Pakudha Kaccāyana, Sanjaya Belatthiputta and Mahavira (Jainism). Also MN 101 further compares Jainism and Buddhism. These suttas contrast the Buddha's teachings with these other teachings. A ...


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I am not aware of any sources claiming actual debates taking place at Nalanda with non-Buddhists, but I do believe the curriculum was such that debates took place with students trying to accurately and faithfully take the place of non-Buddhist Indian schools of thought, in order to show that Buddhist systems were superior and would overcome them. "...


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You might be looking for a scholarly paper which lists the non-Buddhist schools and their philosophies (for which I don't have an answer). The sutta which comes to mind as likely relevant to your question is Brahmajāla Sutta (DN 1) -- which I think lists sixty or so wrong or non-Buddhist views. Piya Tan as a more detailed (highly referenced) translation and ...


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If you want a short free resource, please read the 13-page "The Four Buddhist Tenet Systems: Variations on a Theme of Wholeness" by David Paul Boaz. On Youtube, there's a summary in the video "Elucidating The Tenet Systems of Buddhist Philosophy" by H.E. Abhaya Rinpoche.


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I would recommend Insight into Emptiness by by Khensur Jampa Tegchok and Thubten Chodron. This book discusses the tenets of all four of these schools and compares and contrasts them. Further, the authors are of the same branch of Tibetan Buddhism as His Holiness the Dalai Lama and the latter author also works very closely with the Dalai Lama and is a co-...


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