I think Nagarjuna's Mulamadhyamakakarika is the work you are looking for. Just like Brahma-sutras does not mention specific Buddhist sutras it debates with, Mulamadhyamakakarika does not mention Brahma-sutras, but it does methodically address the same points.
As ancient texts go, Mulamadhyamakakarika is way too obscure to be brought in here and contrasted ...
UPDATE based on the edited question with a suggested definition of karma.
While it is true that the Buddha taught that each and every volitional action has specific consequences this is most definitely not in opposition to the fact that repeated actions based on volitional thoughts can be habit forming. Indeed, consequences of a karmic action can be that it ...
I think the right way to think about this, according to Mahayana Buddhism, is that it is our mind that delineates the spatiotemporal continuum and identifies a cause.
In other words, things are not discrete, not discontinuous - so there are no separate "events" to begin with. In the general case, an event does not and cannot have a precise spatial ...
Here is the list of the Buddhist and Hindu Acaryas in chronological order based on their dates and who critiqued whom.
Nāgārjuna(1st C.E) critiqued by Vātsyāyana (400 C.E)
Vātsyāyana critiqued by Dignāga(500 C.E)
Dignāga critiqued by Kumārila bhaṭṭa/Saṇkarācarya(6th-7th century)
Kumarila bhatta/Saṇkarācarya critiqued by Dharmakriti (6th or 7th century)
The ego has survival instincts hardwired into our bodies. These survival tendencies are what give rise to greed, ignorance and hatred. This is what creates suffering.
To be conscious of this process is the aim of most Buddhist paths. This awareness itself is what gives rise to our capacity to choose something other than what our programming demands. Thus, "...
When we ask someone "why do you do that?", we are asking for her/his reasons.
This basically looks like to fulfil ones own curiosity. Our intellect is the sphere of our mind and our mind delights in experiencing and knowing. Our past desire or craving to know what creates our current mind faculty.
It someone asks me "why do you play tennis?" and I say "I ...
See "Mula-madhyamaka-karika" by Nagarjuna:
Neither from itself nor from another,
Nor from both,
Nor without a cause,
Does anything whatever, anywhere arise.
Later Chandrakirti wrote detailed explanations of these ideas.
The purpose was to demonstrate the middle way between extremes of eternalism and nihilism regarding causes.
The cause is not dependant on the effect. The effect is dependant on the cause. The concept of Śūnyatā does not mean nothingness. It just means being empty of a self and being empty of satisfaction and being empty of permanence or stability.
There are 4 type of minds:
wholesome-root functional mind, good kamma.
unwholesome-root functional mind, bad kamma.
root's effect functional mind, kamma's fruit.
rootless functional mind, neither kamma nor fruit.
In one's life process:
human born just by wholesome kamma, but some organ, i.e. cyst, can arise
by unwholesome kamma after born....
Personnal experience is a good way to learn. From what i understand, buddhism isn't based on blind faith, so experience is an excellent teacher in that sense.
Although i won't quote any buddhist text, i don't think you need to see past lives to understand karma.
Anyone has experienced hatred, selfishness, and the following results on the mind. Actions born ...
Traditional Standard 日蓮仏教/ Nichiren Buddhism at Minobu Yama c.1280AD is about refinement and being kindly and nice and is quite based on The Teachings of The Buddha, & Guidance of 日蓮/ Nichiren Daishi, His writings, and careful consideration of The Lotus Sutra. Nichiren Buddhism is about the present and future, yet doesnot discount the past, and Nichiren ...
in Madhyamika,the effect depends on the cause,wich one can say IS the effect because arising and Cessation do not occur.in Theravadan Kshanabhanga however,the effect is independant of the cause and the effect arises only when the cause has ceased.
No effects can arise without multiple causes. The causes can still be in state just possible to arise or may vanished long time ago. The causes can be unreality as well, knowing person, car, etc. But it is impossible for every effect to arise without causes.
Although the aggregates, which called cancer, can arise without smoking, but that aggregates must ...
Subtleties... The concept of emptiness is a mental object that is predicated on other things. We only get to the concept of emptiness by seeing through and negating the fullness (meaningfulness) of other concepts.
The experience of emptiness in not predicated on the concept of it. To experience emptiness is to see that 'emptiness' is no more real than '...
Looking at the Early Buddhist Texts (EBTs), we see:
AN4.233:1.1: “Cattārimāni, bhikkhave, kammāni mayā sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā paveditāni.
AN4.233:1.1: “Mendicants, I declare these four kinds of deeds, having realized them with my own insight.
We can verify the effects of kamma(Pāli) / karma(Sanskrit) personally and see causes and effects. For example, ...
When we speak about causation we're used to thinking in terms of discrete entities interacting and causing distinct events. This is normal in materialistic view, ever obsessed with discreteness. However, when we speak about continuity, we are in the analogue world - where everything morphs and flows, and where individual "things" and "events" are more like ...
Approaching causal and effectual reliance through "times"
Past, Present, and Future are the three times.
Future, Past, and Present equally depend on each other.
If you try and draw a triangle with only one line or two lines, it is impossible. All three need to be in place for the totality of "time."
In this way, it might be possible to reason more ...
The Enlightened One taught that there is no cause or "creator" that was eternal or has immortality, such as; a soul or supreme being that was empirically knowable. The Buddha taught that there was causal conditions that are observable in the material world of form and in the conscious dispositionally conditioned state (samskrta). Simply put, the Buddha did ...
I came to know His Holiness Dalai Lama serves his guests meat at his residency
Yes but is the meat bought at the supermarket or he keeps animals to slaughter for food?
If it's bought at a supermarket than I think it would be less bad karma than if he had it slaughtered.
Is it dharma to ask your cook to kill an animal to serve your guest or further is it ...
Is it dharma to ask your cook to kill an animal to serve your guest
If Dalai Lama asks the cook to kill an animal, he violates the 1st precept and commits bad karma.
If he asks the cook to just prepare meat without intending him to kill, he does not violate the 1st precept. He will get good Karma for arranging a meal for the guest.
I have not found a single source that addresses the Brahma Sutras directly, but as Bakmoon says, it is possible to find references in texts regarding some of these points. It might be better to add each point or a few relevant points into one question each, with commentaries, in order to obtain good answers.
Points 18 - 21's discussion of cause and effect, ...
There may be a mistake in your first sentence, i.e.:
The term "free will" can imply that one's will is without causes.
I think that the state of willing (wanting) anything "without cause" or "for no reason" would (if that state can even exist at all) be seen as a bad (unnecessary, useless, random, insane, unwise) thing.
Words are pointers. They are not the thing they represent. As such the question misses the point.
In Buddhism there a distinction between karma and things like cultural programming on the one hand and liberation and conscious choice on the other hand.
The problem is that you don't have a concept of what conscious choice means. You might never have ...