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9

The oldest existing manuscript clearly identified as Mahāyāna is a birch bark manuscript of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā-sutra or Discourse on Perfect Wisdom consisting of 8000 [Lines]. This manuscript was carbon dated to 47~147 CE. A version of this text was translated into Chinese in 179 CE by Lokakṣema and was amongst the first few Buddhist texts ...


9

The Pāli Canon (Pali: Tipitaka) is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language. It is the most complete extant early Buddhist canon. It was composed in North India, and preserved orally until it was committed to writing during the Fourth Buddhist Council in Sri Lanka in 29 BCE, approximately ...


7

I am presuming you are looking for translations. There is the Buddha Jayanthi edition which has both Sinhala and Pali. English http://dharmafarer.org/ - does not have all the Tripitaka but there is a growing number of Suttas in PDF form http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ - this has traslation by many and can be downladed in multiple formats in mulitple ...


4

It is an effect by wrong way commentary reading of the western professors and thai professors, because they have not enough skill to read pāli tipitaka and commentary. Commentary just want to said: Buddha called "bhikkhave" because the listeners in front of buddha are bhikkhu. But it doesn't means the other buddhist people can not practice follow that ...


4

I think it varies tremendously based on what tradition they are adapting their teachings from. People following a secularized vipassana tradition probably uphold the Satipatthana sutta, and secular Zen practitioners probably take interest in the Heart Sutra, the Diamond Sutra, and the Platform Sutra. From my interactions with secular Buddhists I get the ...


4

D.O. is a deep topic that is very hard to understand. Even when someone claims that they understand it, you should take their answer with a VERY BIG grain of salt. In theory my understanding "could" be wrong too. In my defense, I have specifically studied this topic for years, going over much literature, both in Pali Canon and in Mahayana. I also took into ...


3

[1] "When it is said in dependent origination that 'sankhara conditions consciousness', in what way and how does sankhara condition consciousness?" This question is answered by better understanding of the terms themselves: When it is said in the Paticca Samuppada (rebounding conjuration) that "sankhāra paṭicca viññāṇa" (own-making results in consciousness -...


3

As well as the suttas which are listed in this answer: There are translations from the Vinaya linked here on Access to Insight (many of the PDFs are commentaries rather than translations). This page (from 2005) of Access to Insight implies (though I don't know if that's true) that many of the Abhidhamma books haven't even been translated at all, let alone ...


3

For Theravada there is the Tipitaka: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html This consists of the "three baskets" of the vinaya pitaka, the rules for monastics, the sutta pitaka aka the sutta teachings, and the abidhamma. It is generally accepted that the oldest and most core part of the Tipitaka that is closest to what the buddha said, ...


3

Within Buddhism there is the notion of Buddhavacana which is the word of the Buddha i.e. those world traditionally attributed to the Buddha. A lot of the Pali Canon does start with an attributation directly from the Buddha e.g. the Sigalovada Sutta sutra begins This is what I heard. On one occasion, the Buddha1 was living near the town of Rajagaha2 ...


3

While there is no commonly recognized single oldest Mahayana sutra (see Wikipedia for general treatment of the topic), many scholars and practitioners believe some of the Prajnaparamita-series sutras to be very old. Specifically, Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra ("Perfection of Wisdom in 8,000 Lines") is believed to be written as early as 1st century BCE -...


3

Historical Buddhist scholars trying to figure out who the historical Buddha was prefer using the Pali texts, not so much because they are canon but because they pass the various tests historians use to decide how old a text is and appear to be the oldest and closest to the original man. This isn't though a secular project, it appears to be a project that ...


2

You would not like it, you don't like it, in all that instances where the Buddha rebukes and uses harsh words, give you certain names... and remind you on you duties saying "Bhikkhus!", do you?... so "it's a shame..." counts just for the sweets in the question, or? On an ideal level it can incl. also novices, wanderers, lay people... Most significant to ...


2

On this page and this page, you can find the "Chronology Of The Pali Canon" by Dr. Bimala Churn Law. Here, it is written in the beginning: Rhys Davids in his Buddhist India (p. 188) has given a chronological table of Buddhist literature from the time of the Buddha to the time of Asoka which is as follows:-- The simple statements of Buddhist ...


2

The Full set of the scans of the PTS translations of the 4 Nikāyas and the Vinaya are available in zipped PDF files at: http://buddhadust.net/backmatter/indexes/idx_downloads.htm#pts_pdfs This is the same collection as mentioned above as located at obo.genaud.net. That site has become obsolete due to our inability to update the site and has been replaced by ...


2

You can find here some selected sutta translations from the Pali Canon, as translated by Thanissaro Bhikku to English, in the azw3, mobi, epub and pdf formats. With Kindle, please use the mobi format for best results. http://www.dhammatalks.org/ebook_index.html Here's what you can find at this page: Handful of Leaves: an Anthology from the Sutta Pitaka, ...


2

This notion has arisen by the commentarial re interpretation of the (Yuga,naddha) Paṭipadā Sutta. More details are given in the following easy: Samatha and Vipassanā by Piya Tan. Also the modern Vipassana Movement has some effects in spreading this nortion. Some discussion about the Vipassana Movement can be found in How Buddhist traditions are transforming –...


2

You're probably thinking of Itivuttaka 44: This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, there are these two forms of the Unbinding property. Which two? The Unbinding property with fuel remaining, & the Unbinding property with no fuel remaining. And what is the Unbinding property with fuel remaining? There ...


2

The blurb on Amazon.com says (about the PTS dictionary specifically), This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright ...


2

on archive.org you usually get several file types, for the text alone https://archive.org/download/Visuddhimagga-ThePathOfPurification


2

The five grasping aggregates are circular in their conditioning. SN12.65:2.16: ‘When name and form exist there’s consciousness. Name and form are a condition for consciousness.’ Grasped in ignorance, the aggregates grow through craving as described in detail by dependent origination. With ignorance, hypotheses sprout like weeds (e.g., "she like me, likes ...


1

Many thanks for these brilliant questions. Through careful introspective mindfulness, the practitioner will note that consciousness can never be found. All that can ever be known are objects of consciousness. Consciousness can only be understood. With this clarity, consciousness can be seen to be the result of observing objects. Without objects, there can ...


1

Sankhara has the seed to attached a future experience. For this to happen you need consciousness. For consciousness to arise you need a being which is nama-rupa. A being automatically gets sense bases without one cannot experience. This is like a painting canvas. Without the canvas, there cannot be painting in thin air. Likewise, consciousness cannot exist ...


1

I converted the pdf to html some years ago using pdf2html but due to copyright issues it can't be shared publicly. When I posted it on our website, the publisher (a Buddhist monk) promptly threatened to sue. I doubt getting permission from the publisher would be easy, unless leadership has changed in the meantime. Nyanamoli's original translation should ...


1

The two versions of the PDF (i.e. Budaedu and Access to Insight -- and actually the copy on Access to Insight's was published by the Buddhist Publication Society) are both based on similar text (i.e. translated from the Pali by Bikkhu Nanamoli). I know approximately what PDF format is (i.e. it's a container for data) but don't know it well (e.g. I don't ...


1

I suppose the "Path of Purification" available at AccessToInsight.org is the third online edition of the Visuddhimagga which you've mentioned as "Budaedu's Visuddhimagga version". So, it's better if you use the most recent edition. Under the terms of use in the PDF book, "Path of Purification" it has mentioned: Copyright revised, third, online edition. ...


1

A yakkha is a type of deva, that is tree-dwelling. They live in the plane of the Devas of the Four Great Kings (catumaharajika deva). Udana 4.4 tells the story of a yakkha, who despite being warned by his mate, gave Venerable Sariputta the Arahant, a strong blow to the head. The yakkha immediately fell into the Great Hell. I have heard that on one ...


1

Deva can die by own angry mind. See Dha.A.2 appamāda-cittavagga Sāmāvatīvatthu (ghosakadevaputta).


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