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Is there an overarching metaphorical meaning of the 31 lokas, ... According to the metaphorical style of interpretation, 31 planes of existence are a map of various lifestyles and mind states (with lower realms corresponding to neurotic conditions, and the higher realms to the meditative trance states) with examples of attitudes leading to and perpetuating ...


6

Buddha's response to such questions has been that whether or not other worlds exist, his teaching is still beneficial if applied in practice. So, for example, if it is said that acting on an extreme negativity-rooted-in-confusion leads to hell, whether the hell is taken literally as a place you go to or metaphorically as a highly disagreeable state of ...


5

First of all you have misunderstood the meaning of 31 planes of existence. It doesn't mean there are 30 other planets in the universe. This simply suggests that there are 30 other realms that are inhabited other than the human realm in this solar system. Four of the 31 are said to be on earth itself: human, animal, hungry ghost and hell realms. On the ...


4

Do Buddhists accept the modern view of the universe I was about to answer, "Yes, I do": but in a way I don't. By that I mean that in fact I go about my daily life without thinking of astronomy (in fact I go all year without it, except a handful of moments per year if I think about the tides or an equinox or etc.). As it happened I studied the maths of ...


4

Here's a quote from Science at the Crossroads by Tenzin Gyatso, the Dalai Lama, Because of this methodological standpoint, I have often remarked to my Buddhist colleagues that the empirically verified insights of modern cosmology and astronomy must compel us now to modify, or in some cases reject, many aspects of traditional cosmology as found in ancient ...


4

First of all some information in the question needs enplaning before going any further. About devas aspiring to be humans This is the full story... Just like any other being the karma of devas run out.Then something amazing start to appear.The flowers they ware start to loose their beauty and die (Like our flowers in the evening),their body's start to ...


4

Everything is impermanent. What the Brahma enjoys is the Pala or fruit. The fruit of any Karma including that arising from developing the Jhanas also passes after sometime. If you develop the Jhanas they also have a finite duration which you can have them before you loose them. The duration can vary based on past pratice, but as always finite. As in many ...


4

... reconcile with modern science? ... Modern science is always changing with new theories and discoveries but Buddhism is presented as eternal or timeless which is valid in the past, present and future. Hence these two cannot be fully reconciled. Since is refinement of theories and models getting closer to the truth while Buddhism is based on publically ...


3

Kosala Sutta 1 Aggañña Sutta Cakka,vatti Siha,nāda Sutta Satta Suriya Sutta Pāṭika Sutta Saṅ­khā­ru­papat­ti­ Sutta Brahma,jala Sutta Also see for introduction: An Introduction to the Brahma,jāla Sutta Also Abhidhamma books contain a lot on this subject.


3

The Sigalovada Sutta mention "the six directions": At that time a young householder named Sigalaka arose early and set out from Rajagaha with freshly washed clothes and hair.[3] With palms together held up in reverence,[4] he was paying respect towards the six directions:[5] that is east, south, west, north, lower and upper. I take that to imply three ...


3

Among the 31 planes of existence, two of it are the realm of humans and the realm of animals. Both of it exist right here on Earth. So, the realms are more from the perspective of different kind of beings, rather than different kind of planets and galaxies. Then you may ask, where are the tusita devas located? How can I find them? Well, I don't have the ...


3

They are said to be located from a certain distance from the human realm. ex: The closest heaven to us is the Chaturmaharajika heaven. It is located 42,000 Yojjanas above from the human realm. But the tree devas and certain Asuras/Yakkas also belong to this heaven. The closest hell realm 'Sanjiva' is located 15,000 Yojjanas below the human realm. Refer to ...


3

As per the "Heart Sutra in 8000 Lines", you liberate all sentient beings by attaining direct realization that in fact there are no any such "sentient beings" to talk about. "Sentient being" is only a nominal designation. Two keywords to study are anatta (sanskt., anatman) and shunyata. Now, as a practice of paramitas (of generosity, forbearance, ...


3

In the arupa worlds you cannot hear the Dhamma as you do not have this faculty, also the mental process is too subtle making it not possible to meditate on it. But if you have experiences even the 1st state of sainthood you can progress from here to the final goal. By the way, living in an arupa world would imply in my understanding that it is possible ...


2

If my understanding is correct,"mind states correlate with realms of rebirth".I don't think you can practice Vipassanna in any Jhanic State.Not even the first jhana (rupajhana). So i don't think any one reborn in a corresponding jhanic realm can practice vipassanna as they are in Absorbtion.I think those born in a non-jhanic realm such a tusita realms etc ...


2

Space (Akasa Pannattis) and time (Kala Pannattis) are a conceptual or perception based construct (Pannattis). Many of the population can perceive in 3D: Stereopsis. There are some who cannot perceive in 3D: Stereoblindness. So the dimensionality differs from person to person or how you perceive it. Buddhism looks at the world through the experience of a ...


2

There are two ways in which physics could disallow a Buddhist form of cosmology: A law of nature which creates measurable predictions in our universe (the human realm of existence) is discovered, and this law contradicts a prediction of Theravadin cosmology. We gain the ability to measure new phenomena such as interactions with another realm or measuring a ...


2

Buddhism is a definite, and it is the same Dhamma preached by all Buddhas. Popular science is always changing with new theory replacing old ones. But having said this some similar theories have emerged: Parallel universe - Multiverse Multiple worlds - Planetary habitability Cyclical universe - Cyclic model, One Big Bang, or were there many?, Multiple Big ...


2

What does "aeons of cosmic expansion and cosmic contraction" mean in Buddhist cosmology? Quoting from Dharma: Its Early History in Law, Religion, and Narrative By Alf Hiltebeitel: An "aeons of cosmic expansion and cosmic contraction" is a translation of saṃvaṭṭa-vivaṭṭakappa: vivaṭṭakappa masculine an ascending aeon and/or: Vivaṭṭa, (m. & nt....


2

Just as fishes are found in water and monkeys are found on trees. Different races are found in different regions of the world. They differ in their skin color, language , necessities , dominating elements and philosophies. Out of this segregated reality Jesus , Ram , Buddhas are born. Nothing happens without reason. Jesus manifested because of the conditions ...


2

To my knowledge, there are12 Yaksha Generals and 28 Legions Serving Avalokiteshvara, but they refer to different beings. In Japanese Buddhism, the latter are called 二十八部衆, Nijūhachi Bushū. The link contains a list of all 28 names in Japanese.


2

I believe it is what makes up/ part of a comprehensive "right view", but not encouraged to be a main focus of realizing the Dharma. It is the kind of topic that leads to answers somewhere along the lines of "Don't ask about the shape of Arrow stabbed on your back" once this topic is dived into. From a worldly perspective, talking too much about the ...


1

Relational quantum mechanics is the mathematical description of co-dependent origination in my opinion, really neat too. It doesn't prove the cosmology but does seem to point to the accuracy or the main insights of the Buddha. If you are talking about the cosmology word for word (like Digha Nikaya 27) then it would be a stretch - a lot of conceptual ...


1

Buddhism speaks of Arya (noble) Experimentation. It's main purpose is to get rid of suffering. Therefore, through Arya Experimentation, one observes such suffering and concludes (if done thoroughly) that all things created, change and perish, thereby is sorrowful and causes suffering by nature. This is called the Four Noble Truths. Science encourages such ...


1

How should one look at buddhist mythologies and cosmologies from a scientific perspective This analysis of the Aggañña Sutta includes, Like the Aggañña Sutta, most of the suttas mentioned above [3] belong to the genre of religious humour. 15 The humorous language and imagery of such suttas is understandable as they deal with well-established ideas ...


1

Mr Ivan ("god is merciful"), because the Buddha did not like Mr Ivan to mistake an realm of existence for Nibbana, or the heartwood. That is why he described those states of being in detail. So when you start to travel, and do not just ponder why you should not travel yet, Mr Ivan is well prepared. In which plane of existence did you now take place? Nobody ...


1

Traditionalists either believe the cosmologies literally, or as myths (instructive stories). Donald Lopez did write a book about some of the earlier attempts to reconcile science & traditionalist Buddhism. I only read the sample, so I can't vouch for it to speak to your whole question, but it came to mind: The Scientific Buddha: His Short and Happy ...


1

This answer is based on Theravada. so it may not appropriate here, comparing with Andrei's answer. As per the "Maha Hasthipadopama Sutra in a paragraph", you liberate 'Your Self' by attaining direct realization that in fact there are no any such "sentient beings" to talk about. "Sentient being" is only a nominal designation. Two keywords to study are anatta ...


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