First of all, lay Buddhists are not required to shave their heads, only the monks and nuns.
In most Buddhist traditions it is a custom/rule that when you become a monk or nun (a.k.a. Bhikkhu) you have to shave your head.
There are also monastic rules that say that a Bhikkhu is not allowed to grow hair beyond a certain length or time.
The hair of the head ...
Bhante is the preferred mode of address if you are addressing the bhikkhu respectfully; note that it is masculine, so for bhikkhunis, Ayye is correct (mostly they use ayya, but I don't think that is technically correct). In English, Venerable x and Reverend x would also be suitable expressions of respect.
If you are addressing them as an equal or as an ...
I believe initially the robes were mostly yellow as this was a color of renunciation in the locality at the Buddha's time. As the Dhamma-Vinaya spread the different robe colors occurred due to the local dyes monastics used in their respective localities being different shades and colors.
I do know that in the Theravada tradition at least in Thailand and Sri ...
I believe they shave their heads because they don't want to have attachments to the body or self image. They also don't use cosmetics, perfumes and so on... This is a very old practice, including the robes they wear, since the time of the Buddha
Lay people don't have to do it, only monks.
With the historical significance of the color of the original robes explained by other posters, I'll just add a color chart to identify what regions different colors are mostly associated with today; keeping in mind there are exceptions:
Spice colored robes (shades of curry, cumin, paprika, saffron) - Southeast Asia
Bright yellow - China
Black, brown, ...
Ven. Yuttadhamma wrote:
"Bhante is the preferred mode of address if you are addressing the bhikkhu respectfully; note that it is masculine, so for bhikkhunis, Ayye is correct (mostly they use ayya, but I don't think that is technically correct)."
To comment briefly on this - i have learned of "Bhante" as the vocative contraction of "Bhadanta"--an "...
From my research it looks like the reason that original kasayas (stitched robes, made from leftover pieces of fabric and clothes found on trash piles, taken off corpses etc. - basically the discards of civilization) were ochre or brown-red, is because they were washed with red clay, used as a cleaning agent.
Ochre was the most available color of clay around ...
One reason with hair is you can use it for beautification like having a hair style. Monks are not allowed to use mirrors or look at once face unless it is for medical reasons or contemplating of aging and impermanence.
Long hair was the style many people had during Buddha's time some this prevents any styling and beautification.
Offering of alms to monks and nuns is likely different in Buddhist minority countries, compared to Buddhist majority countries.
Please see this page by the Buddhist Society of Western Australia (BSWA), for a guide on offering food to the Sangha of BSWA.
Please see this page by the Amaravati Buddhist Monastery in Hertfordshire, England, for a similar guide.
Mr./ Mrs. Smith, that is a very thoughtful question. Generally you may offer what ever you feel inspired or feel that it is of use, regardless if the Monk might be allowed or willing to receive, would deed in intention is done.
Some give a flower, just picked for their joy, some a shady seat to rest, some a joyful and devoted bow or folded hands, some a wish ...
(I can't comment on this "...it is interesting to note that once you become enlightened you don't worry about such small things. Although Siddhartha cut his hair, Buddha kept long hair himself. – TheDarkKnightRules Nov 15 '14 at 9:48..." because of some silly rules of this website. But I would like to clear up a point that 'Buddha kept long hair himself.')
The command was the color Kasava--that means dirty or stained brown. No other color allowed. But the patches and dyes varied, so the Buddha approved the MINOR variations of brown. The idea behind the color is that this is the color of mourning. The entire tricivara is based on ancient Hindu widow's weeds. No one ever answers THIS question correctly. Clerics ...
I'm here burning the mid-night oil for the bounty!! :))))
Unfortunately I wasn't able to find the corresponding Agama Text, else it would be more clear, to me at least.
However, Samadhi normally remained as "Samadhi" (三昧/三摩地) in Chinese, not translated, despite the rich knowledge of meditation inherited from the Daoist understanding what's going on in the ...
How do they cope with this condition?
By following a doctor's recommendation, presumably.
For arguments sake, we could apply a relativistic approach to the meaning of "coping". Buddhist practice can be and is a valid coping strategy in certain medical conditions, provided that a medical paradigm has ran out of answers (A strictly hypothetical example: ...
Originally, in the first years or so of the sangha, monks would make their own robes from scraps of cloth they found in the trash or in cemeteries, etc. They would color them by rubbing them with dirt or clay. After that, any earthy color, found in dying leaves of trees, such as red, yellow, brown, orange or maroon, was acceptable. Within the Theravada, ...
" Bright yellow - China
Black, brown, gray - Japan & Korea "
I want to add this trivia. The original colour of monastic robe in China was black or gray much like its brethen in Japan and Korea from the Dharmaguptaka lineage.
However Master Hsing Yun the famous Chinese monk from Fo Guang Shan in ...
of all the responses here, i am only surprised that Theravadan women wear white. my experience is in Nyo Ho E (authentic Dharma clothing) as provided for in Japan especially through the teaching lines of Kodo Sawaki-roshi at Antaiji and brought to North America by trainees through there including Yoshida-roshi and Joshin-sama to Tomoe Katagiri-sama and ...
The earliest records we have refer to Ānanda in many ways. But bhikkhu is one of them. For example in the Mahāpadāna Sutta we find
Mayhaṃ, bhikkhave, etarahi ānando nāma bhikkhu upaṭṭhāko ahosi aggupaṭṭhāko.
A bhikkhu called Ānanda, monks, was our servant, the best of servants.
Similarly in the Kalyaṇamitta Sutta (SN i.87)
Atha kho, mahārāja, ...
In this context Samadhi stands for "meditation". So a better translation of that passage would be:
Cultivate meditation, monks. One who meditates gets clear vision into the nature of things as they really are.
Or as my teacher said, "in order to have clarity you need to sit".
Here "as they really are" does not mean the raw appearance which Theravada ...
In Maha-parinibbana Sutta, for example, they're referred to as "bhikkhus" and "Venerable".
In this translation it's "monks" and "Venerable".
Wikipedia says that,
Bhikkhu literally means "beggar" or "one who lives by alms".
The 'ordained' monastics and the Vinaya existed (were created) during the Buddha's lifetime.
Thirty years ago when I was at your age I practiced Transcendental Meditation by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. It is a mantra meditation. In it you are given a ‘bija’ – a seed mantra - a kind of Kasina that helps to settle the mind of the meditation practitioner within a very short time. One can create an oasis of calm amidst the hustle and bustle of the outside ...
I don't think it is all that different than in past times. The distractions and duties might have been different, but there were surely many obstacles on the way.
The texts always mention householders and lay people for a reason.
The degree to which you practice or are able to practice may vary on your circumstances; many of those might not be that fixed ...
Is Bhikkhu allowed to keep his food in refrigerator for next day or for long period?
Not proper food, only certain types of edibles:
The Four Sorts of Edibles
Any nutriment that a bhikkhu puts into his mouth is classified in four
groups, which specify the time limits during which he can consume or
(i) Food — Limited from Dawn to Noon (...