Wil.: dgag bya
Usually translated by Jeffrey Hopkins as 'object of negation'. Although the object of negation is twofold: (1) the objective aspect (true existence) and (2) the subjective aspect (ignorance), 'object of negation' usually refers to true existence.
It is explained at length in the 'Special Insight' chapter of the Lam Rim:
- Third volume of Tsongkhapa's the Lam Rim Chen Mo
- 5th chapter of Tsongkhapa's Middle-Length Lam Rim
It is also explained at length in the following:
- Tsongkhapa's Final Exposition of Wisdom
- Khedrup Je's A dose of Emptiness
The object of negation is a 'truth to be denied' or a 'concealer truth'. It is true existence, or inherent existence according to Prasangika-Madhyamika.
Since true existence appears as if existing but is actually utterly non-existent, why do we call it a truth? What is the meaning of 'truth' in 'truth for a concealer'? It is called a [concealer] truth because although it is not a truth (since it doesn't exist the way it appears) it is true in relation to ignorance.
This is explained in the Explanation of Candrakīrti’s Commentary on
the ‘Middle Way’ as well:
That which appears truly existent and inherently
separate due to a concealer while not existing inherently is true for
a worldly, mistaken concealer.
Strictly speaking, a truth is an object that exists the way it appears (its mode of existence is concordant with its mode of existence). Example: emptiness is an [ultimate] truth, and is an actual truth, because it exists the way it appears to the mind directly realizing it. However, a conventional truth is a truth only in relation to ignorance. A concealer truth is also a truth only in relation to ignorance: it is not an actual truth.