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I am in the habit of getting the concepts samatha and samadhi mixed up. To me they seem like related or even similar concepts. Is that correct? My understanding is that samatha seems like the process of integration and samadhi seems like the result of integration. Is that the correct interpretation?

As a related point are the underlying concepts related if you consider the Pali origins of the words i.e. do they have similar roots in the language?

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Samatha is tranquility meditation, meditating on a stable object with the objective of reaching calm states/jhanas.

Samadhi is concentration. The Buddha's teachings of the eightfold noble path are divided into three categories; sila (morality), samadhi (concentration), and panna (wisdom/understanding).

Samadhi is the meditation portion of the Buddha's teachings (Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration) and would include Samatha plus other types of meditation.

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Just to add to what Robin has said and answer your last question.

"..are the underlying concepts related if you consider the Pali origins of the words i.e. do they have similar roots in the language?"

Samadhi (Sanskrit: समाधि, ...), also called samāpatti, in Buddhism, ... is meditative absorption, attained by the practice of Jhana. In samadhi the mind becomes still, one-pointed or concentrated while individual awareness remains present.

Sometimes upacara samadhi and appana samadhi is used to distinguished between threshold concentration and absorbed concentration.

Whereas:

Samatha (Pāli), (Sanskrit: शमथ, śamatha[note 1] is the Buddhist practice (bhavana) of the calming of the mind (citta) and its 'formations' (sankhara). This is done by practicing single-pointed meditation most commonly through mindfulness of breathing. Samatha is common to all Buddhist traditions.

Paring it down to a few words. Samadhi is concentration and Samatha is a practice.

As to your understanding:

My understanding is that samatha seems like the process of integration and samadhi seems like the result of integration.

Very close but if you replace "integration" with "concentrating" spot on.

  • That definition of Samatha above says it is the practice of "single-pointed meditation most commonly through mindfullness of breathing". But 'single-pointed' typically refers to concentration meditation, and 'mindfullness of breathing' must be a form of mindfullness, and aren't these things different? – Tom Feb 14 '18 at 23:29
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Samādhi means the stability of mind.

Samatha means the peace of mind.

Wholesome mind arising is a friend.

Unwholesome mind arising is an enemy.

Uddhacca mind factor is instability of mind.

There is no peace and no stability while the nation is battling the enemies in the war.

There is the peace and the stability after the nation has no war by making friends instead of collecting the enemies.

See Ma.A. (papa–ca.1) Dvedhāvitakkasuttavaṇṇanā. Actually, there is a sutta as well, but I can't remember where it is in AN Ekakanipāta.

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Samapatti and Samadhi is equal but not the same Samapatti is a state of oneness but Samadhi is a state of emptiness Samapatti is the first stage of Samadhi There are verious stages of Samapatti SABITARKA NIRBITARKA SABICHARA and NIRBICHARAA. Samadhi is of two types SAVIJA and NIRVIJA.In both cases there is gradual cessation of the subject It starts from the mind then intellect and finally the cessation of the Self This is called SWARUPASUNYAABASTA

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    Would you please provide references for your answer to above question? – Damith Jan 21 at 8:30

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