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The question is in the title.

Or is he just known as an arahant?

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    This can not happen. Only 1 Buddha can exist in universe. Lord Buddha himself said this. – Viraj Mar 17 '15 at 9:48
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    [MN 115][1] only says that it's impossible for 2 "fully" Enlightened Ones to arise in a world system. But anyway, a PaccekaBuddha arises only at a time when no Dispensation of a fully enlightened Buddha exists in the world (Ven. Bodhi's "Middle Length Discourses", note#1095). So no, they'd never meet. And a PaccekaBuddha isn't classified as an Arahant for an Arahant is someone who attained enlightenment through listening and practicing the teaching of the Buddha. [1]: tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Bahudhatuka_Sutta – santa100 Mar 18 '15 at 14:43
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I don't remember where the story is mentioned, but if I remember right, there was a Pacceka Buddha in the world when the Bodhisatta was born as prince Siddhartha. He attained Parnibbana after hearing the news from the Devas that the Buddha to be has appeared in the world. So it would seem that a Pacceka Buddha wouldn't stay if a SammaSambuddha appears in the world. Also, those who are capable of attaining enlightenment will be drawn towards the Buddha or the Buddha will see them when he scans the world system every morning.

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If a Buddha exists then can a private Buddha arise or exist somewhere in the same world system without having learned from the current Buddha?

No, it is impossible. Lord Buddha himself said so.If you look at Lord Buddha's very first teaching () you will see that it mentions this statement.

"Lord Buddha has rotated the wheel of dharma it can't be reversed by other monks,Devas or Mara." (Please note that this is a simple conversion.)

This means Before a birth of a Lord Buddha there is no previous teaching of Buddhist way left in any world / realm. A Lord Buddha release these teachings for the first time in that era and it can't be stopped by any person with any amount of force or influence.

If You want to listen to this Sutta here is the link: https://soundcloud.com/mahamevnawa-lk/wjta3yay10kf

There is a special meditation method called "Buddhanussathi". It is all about the Lord Buddha's uniqueness. Here is the link: http://mahamevnawa.com/Amadahara_FrnDw/Mp3_JeewanandaThero/51_Budhdhaanussathi_meditation.mp3

This example may not be convincing enough for some one.so listen to these:

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    Could you add a source for the statement in your answer? – Lanka Oct 28 '15 at 8:58

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