I have recently started studying the teachings of Buddhism, so I have a lot of questions that I can't find an answer to yet. Help me understand Buddhism better. Thanks. What types of disputes are there? What does the teaching of Buddhism say about disputes? Is it necessary to take part in disputes?
The following sutta quotes are helpful.
From Sutta Nipata 4.11:
"From where have there arisen quarrels, disputes, lamentation, sorrows, along with selfishness, conceit & pride, along with divisiveness? From where have they arisen? Please tell me."
"From what is dear there have arisen quarrels, disputes, lamentation, sorrows, along with selfishness, conceit & pride, along with divisiveness. Tied up with selfishness are quarrels & disputes. In the arising of disputes is divisiveness."
You have things dear to you and your friend has things dear to him or her. "Dear" here means clinging or attachment. For e.g. you cling to your religion and political ideology, while your friend clings to his or her religion and political ideology. This difference causes the arising of quarrels and disputes.
The best thing to do is just agree to disagree, out of friendliness or kindness. That should settle the quarrel.
In MN 128, the Buddha gave this advice:
For enmity in this world
is never settled by enmity.
It’s only settled by love:
this is an ancient principle.
Others don’t understand
that our lives must have limits.
The clever ones who know this
settle their quarrels right away.
The word that was translated as "love" above is avera in Pali, which is translated by some dictionaries as friendliness or kindness.