What does samudaya mean? I'm seeing: "community", "arising", "the origin, or cause of suffering"

When I read samudaya on the wiki, I became uncertain.

Then somehow i read it as "ignorance together with dukkha", and somehow that made sense..(dependent origination?)

any verification?

  • But aren’t evil deeds also the cause for suffering? Why would one do evil deeds then? Craving? So craving can also be the origin of suffering? Doubts?
    – blue_ego
    Jul 4, 2022 at 3:18
  • Sometimes the meaning of a word depends on the context in which it's used -- where are you reading it? Also did you mean samudaya (not "sumudaya")?
    – ChrisW
    Jul 4, 2022 at 4:46
  • Its samudaya not sumudaya
    – enRaiser
    Jul 4, 2022 at 7:15
  • @ChrisW I reading at the wikipedia..
    – blue_ego
    Jul 4, 2022 at 12:33
  • @ChrisW en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Noble_Truths
    – blue_ego
    Jul 4, 2022 at 12:40

4 Answers 4


Samudaya (in Sanskrit) in the context of Buddhism and dependent origination (paticcaya samutpada {Pali} pratitya-samutpada {Sanskrit}) literally connotes origination, arising.

"Community" is a contemporary meaning of the Hindi word samudaya, whose pronunciation also differs.

When the context is suffering, quite possibly one of the immediate follow up question for analysis in the buddhist context would be cause of suffering. In that and such context, samudaya can come to connote the cause of origin of suffering.


They're all right.

Past lives ignorants cause this life. And the arising ignorant is causing life as well.

If you can see the past lives, you will see yourselves when doing karma, both wholesome and unwholesome, with ignorant.

And if you see trillion times per second arising mind moments, you will see uncountable ignorant with unwholesome and switching in between vanished wholesome.

Why ignorant is at first

When unwholesome mind and mind-factors arise, many of them always or often arise together.

However, if the practitioner don't ignore at first whether "clinging on arising and vanishing realities is causing of suffering", they don't want to cling on anything, then all unwholesome minds can't arise.

Meditate Jhana-Mastery and see the arising and vanishing yourself to see the truth whether "we are clinging on only arising and vanishing trillion times per second", then you will see "how much we ignore entire lives".


Samudaya is described in 3 methods according to Orthodox Theravada.

  1. Ariya sacca method -> Tanha (craving)
  2. Paticcasamuppada method -> 12 links (including Tanha) rooted in Avijja (ignorance)
  3. Patthana method -> More detailed with 24 causes

We have to patiently learn them little by little.

The Omniscient One has stated that the Dhamma is very deep and hard to see in many suttas.

Let's take time and learn it properly.


Samudaya or the origin is nicely explained in Concentration Sutta (SN 22.5)

“And what, bhikkhus, is the origin of form? What is the origin of feeling? What is the origin of perception? What is the origin of volitional formations? What is the origin of consciousness?

“Here, bhikkhus, one seeks delight, one welcomes, one remains holding. And what is it that one seeks delight in, what does one welcome, to what does one remain holding? One seeks delight in form, welcomes it, and remains holding to it. As a consequence of this, delight arises. Delight in form is clinging. With one’s clinging as condition, existence comes to be; with existence as condition, birth; with birth as condition, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

If you want to understand samudaya according to Concentration Sutta, refer to this teaching and do the meditations explained at the end.

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .