Are the titles “lama” and “rinpoche”, referring to a Buddhist teacher or leader, titles that are granted? Or are they titles that someone can give themselves? Or both?
By “granted” I mean they require someone to have some form of formal qualifications (as how US pastors are required to have a bachelors degree); religious training (similar to Catholic priests going to a seminary); or backing of a community (general consensus that this person is worthy of the title, regardless of whether they were formally trained or self-taught).
By “give themselves” I mean, can they refer to a person who teaches and guides others how to practice forms of Buddhism, either formally or informally, but independently of an institution?