What are the Pali cannon references, if any, for the historical Buddha explicitly teaching and/or endorsing Kasiṇa (meditation of the type found in the Visuddhimagga or any type of Kasina meditations)?

2 Answers 2


There is a related question here on Stackexchange.

This is a contested topic with active discussions going. The background is that some Theravadins may feel the need to defend their Visuddhimagga against attacks from other traditions who say that Buddhaghosa just added this stuff.

  • It feels like this should have been more suited as a comment, rather than an answer.
    – user17652
    Jan 3, 2023 at 11:22
  • @Max thanks! I'm not sure about this. I've checked meta.stackoverflow.com/questions/297066 Pointing to a related question is a soft way of marking the question as duplicated. That's quite frequently used in the other techy StackExchanges communities where I'm active. Also, I frankly believe there is no better answer to this question than saying that it is disputed, and that there might be no generally accepted truth to it. Please correct me if you think that I'm wrong, I'm eager to learn and improve.
    – fraber
    Jan 5, 2023 at 10:33
  • Yes, I agree. The line between commenting and answering can be quite grey. Adding to that, the evolution of Theravada, which is quite messy, makes approaching the question a challenge.
    – user17652
    Jan 5, 2023 at 11:09

The Kosala Sutta: The Kosalan is one example. So nothing wrong by using such kammaṭṭhāna, good householder, as certain included and preference of kind of 'hobby' is different from individual to individual.

And it's not wise to hold a 'I know better that the Elders' attitude, but much better and of benefit if approaching the Gems with devotion, respect, generosity and patient first. As else would just demerit, here and here after.

  • My impression is Kosala Sutta is only one of two examples, which points to these suttas being fake rather than the Buddha's words. It is expected the AN and MN will contain late material. suttacentral.net/search?query=kasina Feb 8, 2022 at 6:11
  • 1
    Sure... what ever goes against the grain, defilements, must be fake... One who isn't able to leave home and sensuality, yet thinking smarter then the Gems, thats possible more easy to trace as fake, or?
    – user23425
    Feb 8, 2022 at 12:07
  • @Dhammadhatu, if there are two and the Kosala Sutta is one, what is the other one?
    – vimutti
    Feb 17, 2022 at 22:06
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    MN 77.......................... Feb 18, 2022 at 21:41

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