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The sutta quote below talks about using different awakening factors when the mind is sluggish as opposed to when the mind is restless.

What are the meditation or mindfulness techniques to be used for each case?

Please elaborate and also quote from suttas, if possible.

From SN 46.53:

“... when the mind is sluggish, it’s the wrong time to develop the awakening factors of tranquility, immersion, and equanimity. Why is that? Because it’s hard to stimulate a sluggish mind with these things.

When the mind is sluggish, it’s the right time to develop the awakening factors of investigation of principles, energy, and rapture. Why is that? Because it’s easy to stimulate a sluggish mind with these things. .....

“... when the mind is restless, it’s the wrong time to develop the awakening factors of investigation of principles, energy, and rapture. Why is that? Because it’s hard to settle a restless mind with these things.

When the mind is restless, it’s the right time to develop the awakening factors of tranquility, immersion, and equanimity. Why is that? Because it’s easy to settle a restless mind with these things.

2

In short when you notice drowsiness don't just sit there developing that theme of anapanasati, metta, the noting of drowsiness and whatnot. See Capala Sutta for examples.

As soon as you notice that the hindrance of drowsiness is present in you then you should rouse yourself as to wake yourself up and give attention to the theme of arousal of energy or joy.

This you can do by contemplating stirring objects, something that makes ypu glad and even doing tiresome work and whatnot. Basically somehow you hype yourself up if you can.

On the other hand if restless then harness the excess energy to stick to a meditation object like it's glued. A calming theme is used here, something like the breath is good if the mind is racing because anapanasati is particularly good at preventing distracting thoughts.

Otherwise one could develop the themes or appreciation or recollection of nice things like one's virtue, the gems or devas. These can be both calming andor gladdening.

The theme you pick depends on your temperament and circumstances, you can use other themes like the asuba or metta as well if you want, anything that keeps you focused all the way into jhanas.

What then happens is that mind quickly gets secluded due to that non-distractedness on account of directing of aroused energy and keeping it focused.

I have studied this extensively and this is only a very brief practical abbreviation of how to train, not analyzing each theme nor each factor.

Here some texts i've read;

Dhamma Vicaya

He, dwelling mindful in the above manner, searches, investigates and reasons out thoroughly that same thing with wisdom. This is called truth investigation-awakening-factor. (2) Therein what is truth investigation-awakening-factor? That which is wisdom, understanding. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view, truth investigation-awakening-factor, path constituent, included in the path. This is called truth investigation-awakening-factor.

“And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu a triple investigator? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu investigates by way of the elements, by way of the sense bases, and by way of dependent origination. It is in such a way that a bhikkhu is a triple investigator…

  1. Viriya

The energy of his searching, investigating and reasoning out thoroughly that same thing with wisdom, is strenuous, unshrinking. This is called energy-awakening-factor. (3)Therein what is energy-awakening-factor? That which is the arousing of mental energy. right effort, energy-awakening-factor, path constituent, included in the path. This is called energy-awakening-factor.

The mental inception of energy which there is on that occasion, the striving and the onward effort, the exertion and endeavour, the zeal and ardour, the vigour and fortitude, the state of unfaltering effort, the state of sustained desire, the state of unflinching endurance, the solid grip of the burden, energy, energy as faculty and as power, right endeavour—this is the energy that there then is.

  1. Piti

Therein what is rapture-awakening-factor? That which is rapture, gladness, rejoicing, rapture, mirth, merriment, felicity, elation, delight of consciousness, rapture-awakening-factor. This is called rapture-awakening-factor. (4)For him of strenuous energy there arises rapture that is not worldly. This is called rapture-awakening-factor. (4)

The joy which on that occasion is gladness, rejoicing at, rejoicing over, mirth and merriment, felicity, exultation, transport of mind—this is the joy that there then is.

  1. Passadhi

Therein what is calmness-awakening-factor? That which of the aggregate of feeling, of the aggregate of perception, of the aggregate of volitional activities, of the aggregate of consciousness is calmness, serenity, being calm, being serene, state of being serene, calmness-awakening-factor. This is called calmness-awakening-factor. (5)For him of raptureful mind the body (of mental aggregates) becomes calm, also consciousness becomes calm. This is called calmness-awakening-factor.

The serenity, the composure which there is on that occasion, the calming, the tranquillizing, the tranquillity of the aggregates

  1. Samadhi

Therein what is samādhi-awakening-factor? That which is stability of consciousness. right samādhi, samādhi-awakening-factor, path constituent, included in the path. This is called samādhi-awakening-factor. (6)For him of calm body (of mental aggregates) and mental pleasure, consciousness is in samādhi. This is called samādhi-awakening-factor.

The stability, solidity, absorbed steadfastness of thought which on that occasion is the absence of distraction, balance, imperturbed mental procedure, quiet, the faculty and the power of concentration, right concentration—this is same as composure [collectedness/self-collectedness/onepointedness]

  1. Upekkha

Therein what is equanimity-awakening-factor? That which is equanimity, having equanimity, supreme equanimity, state of balance of consciousness, equanimity-awakening-factor. This is called equanimity-awakening-factor. He, having consciousness in samādhi in the above manner, is well balanced. This is called equanimity-awakening-factor.

The mental [condition] neither pleasant nor unpleasant, which, on that occasion, is born of contact with the appropriate element of representative intellection; the sensation, born of contact with thought, which is neither easeful nor painful; the feeling, born of contact with thought, which is neither easeful nor painful—this is the feeling that there then is.

*Here end the Theravadin Abhidhamma & Sutta excerpts.

Also when the mind is sluggish or aroused, the theme you pick depends on why it is aroused, it might be due to remorse, worry, anger, sensual desire or due to giving of attention to the factor of Viriya as you can easily hype yourself up immensely once you get a grip on this.

Therefore one should be mindful of the hindrances at all times.

I won't post on these and picking themes but i have compiled commentary and sutta excerpts here; https://docs.google.com/document/d/1qVz1XtntivxPRsxycsrH0_sgILcMbcghdpxoKuxlLYo/edit?usp=drivesdk

I think the least obvious development is that of upekkha factor and there are several ways of going about it.

Ie defining elements brings about a kind of equanimity, as do certain lines of contemplation and entering the 4th rupa jhana brings about a kind of equanimity. In general equanimity that is good is brought about however you can get it imo.

1

The two triples of awakening factors are aligned in balance with the extremes of sluggishness and restlessness, which in turn relate to the hindrances.

  • Dullness and drowsiness are given up by means of active engagements such as investigation of principles, energy and rapture. As an example, AN7.61 provides detailed information on dealing with drowsiness.

AN7.61:2.1: “Are you nodding off, Moggallāna? Are you nodding off?” “Yes, sir.” “So, Moggallāna, don’t focus on or cultivate the perception that you were meditating on when you fell drowsy. It’s possible that you’ll give up drowsiness in this way.

  • Restlessness and remorse are given up by mindful disengagement. As an example, MN118, declares:

MN118:15.2: Mindfulness of breathing, when developed and cultivated, fulfills the four kinds of mindfulness meditation.

So the question asked is quite subtle and deep--there are many many considerations involved here. For me, the "Aha!" of SN46.53 is the description of the two groups of three awakening factors and how they relate to the hindrances of dullness/drowsiness and restlessness/remorse. Indeed one notices that the seventh, and key factor required to apply the other two is...mindfulness. And mindfulness is key because mindfulness is always required to understand when and where to apply a particular triple of awakening factors.

Being mindful, we can be aware of hindrances. For example, we can apply investigation of principles to understand how the greed of overeating can lead to drowsiness and dullness. Or we can apply immersion after a messy workday to let go of restlessness and remorse. In both cases, mindfulness is required. And in both cases, mindfulness helps us understand what other awakening factors should be addressed.

It's an open-ended question that we all need to answer individually moment by moment, mindful of all the suttas.

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