Other sects definitely have plenty of "stages", just not necessarily the same ones.
For example in Tibetan Buddhism there's not just one text but a whole genre of texts called "Stages of the path" (usually shortened to Lamrim in Tibetan). These are not stages of meditation, rather it is the overall stages of insight and realization of the practice of buddha-dharma. You can see a sample of titles in this genre on the corresponding Wikipedia page: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamrim
Zen has the stages of taming the bull, as described in the other answer. Again, these are overall maturity not specifically meditation.
Although if you ask me, Visuddhimagga's stages don't read like in-meditation stages either, by that I mean they look more like (slightly obscured) stages of the realization of Emptiness than stages of progression of one's meditation skills. This gets more obvious when we see similar lists from other early schools, each of them having a slightly different description of the stages all clearly pointing to the same overall sequence of investigation => realization => denial => acceptance => liberation.
When it comes to meditation stages proper, Mahayana ones actually seem to be more to the point. For example in Tibetan tradition one traditional list is known as the "stages of taming the elephant" and counts anywhere from 10 to 30+ stages. Another one is called "The Nine Stages of Settling the Mind" etc. These actually describe one's meditation skills at each level of maturity - unlike Visuddhimagga's that mentions more generic things such as disenchantment, conformity, and knowledge of how the overall path works.
To summarize, indeed "separate sects of Buddhism ... have formed their own "maps" - just not necessarily by walking the same exact trail, though the overall landscape is undeniably recognizable to anyone who has walked it.