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How can we correlate Buddhist cosmology with astronomical cosmology? Basically I have following questions.

  1. Moon is considered 51 yojan in height and 50 is the sun. Sun is self illuminated and heat is the outward. Inner is made of diamond. But with modern physics sun is extremely large star fueled by nuclear reactions. Moreover are stars and planets are small elements or are stars like sun as in astronomy?

  2. Is Earth flat or sphere?

  3. Where can you find the great Mahameru mountain? In science there's an opinion of center of the Galaxy. But it's an opinion and not a theoretical teaching.

  4. Can a loka dathu have one moon and sun each or more? Sun and moon is rotating around great Mahameru Mountain. Then how can we correlate that with moon orbiting around earth and Earth orbiting around sun.

  5. Is Jambudweepa mentioned is the entire earth or is a part of Earth? Where can we find the other 4 continents.

Since there are lots of opinion based answers on internet, I would like if there is a more theoretical answer. Thank you all. May you all attain Nirvana. Theruvan Saranai.

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Much of Buddhist Cosmology is found in commentarial literature and has some parallels with the cosmology of the time with many elements shared in Asian religions.

OP: Where can you find the great Mahameru mountain?

This is in some opinions centre of the universe.

The following quote is from the Hindu interpretation:

In the middle, the power point (bindu) represents the cosmic center.

Source: Shri Yantra

A 3D image of it is as follows:

enter image description here

or

enter image description here

OP: Can a loka dathu have one moon and sun each or more?

This is akin to more a solar system with planets in current terminology.

OP: Where can we find the other 4 continents.

Space is divided into 4 quadrants and these are the continents in some opinions. So the whole world is part of one continent.

More like what is found here:

enter image description here

Source: Supercluster

For more information see:

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Dharma does not answer these questions for you. Buddhism is all about verifying and not just accepting dogma as facts based on faith alone.

Consider what His Holiness says here carefully:

His Holiness remarked that it is because the Buddha’s teachings can be presented in terms of logic and reasoning that aspects of them dealing with the mind and so forth are of interest to scientists. Logic and reason also have a role in relation to the three objects of knowledge—phenomena that are manifest and obvious; others that are slightly hidden and yet others that are very hidden. To understand extremely hidden phenomena it’s necessary to rely on textual authority or an experienced person.

His Holiness clarified that teachings about topics like emptiness can be verified by experience and declared that he has chosen to reject the existence of Mount Meru explicitly because neither he nor anyone else has any experience of it. He suggested that if it existed we should be able to see it as we travel around the world—and we do not. He added that the reason the Buddha appeared in the world was to teach the Four Noble Truths, not the measurements of the world or other aspects of cosmology.

What matter are these aspects of cosmology to your heartfelt practice of Buddha Dharma??!!

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