Physical theories would be classified under "name and form" in dependent origination:
MN9:52-54.7: Feeling, perception, intention, contact, and attention—this is called name. The four primary elements, and form derived from the four primary elements—this is called form.
The notion of chance and probability is also discussed in DN1, which describes various views that do not yield an end to suffering:
DN1:2.32.2: It’s when some ascetic or brahmin relies on logic and inquiry. They speak of what they have worked out by logic, following a line of inquiry, expressing their own perspective: ‘The self and the cosmos arose by chance.’
DN1 enumerates this and other views and simply states that they are a trap for those interested in the end of suffering:
DN1:3.72.3: In the same way, all of these ascetics and brahmins who theorize about the past or the future are trapped in the net of these sixty-two grounds, so that wherever they emerge they are caught and trapped in this very net.
Physical theories enable grasping as well as continued existence. We can reliably place artillery shells or subatomic particles where we wish with high probability and evaluate the results using the six sense fields. Yet the search for the end of suffering leads us to understand and relinquish the craving that drives such grasping.
The Buddha therefore acknowledges physical theories. The Buddha also teaches us that the end of suffering cannot be found in those physical theories.