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In the Buddhist story of Ananda, Buddha's most devoted disciple, it's said that after Buddha's death the first Buddhist council was assembled to write down all of Buddha's teachings.

Only those that were enlightened could attending the council. As the person who was closest to the Buddha, Ananda knew best the teachings of the Buddha, but because he wasn't enlightened he could not attend.

So Ananda started an intense meditation and became enlightened just before the council took place.

How did he knew he became enlightened? How do you recognize when your practice finally brings you enlightenment?

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The way to check the stage of enlightenment on or another person is in is by checking which fetters are broken and which are not. If all 10 are broken then you are fully enlightened. This should be done with utmost care as in many cases there is a chance one may overestimate.

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well the sotapanna have these gains

"Monks, there are these six rewards in realizing the fruit of stream-entry. Which six? One is certain of the true Dhamma. One is not subject to falling back. There is no suffering over what has had a limit placed on it. [1] One is endowed with uncommon knowledge. [2] One rightly sees cause, along with causally-originated phenomena.

https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an06/an06.097.than.html

the arahant has the special knowledge of destruction of the taints

"With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it is actually present, that 'This is stress... This is the origination of stress... This is the cessation of stress... This is the way leading to the cessation of stress... These are fermentations... This is the origination of fermentations... This is the cessation of fermentations... This is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.' His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With release, there is the knowledge, 'Released.' He discerns that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.'

https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.060.than.html same thing here

"Thus, monks, Ignorance is the supporting condition for the (kamma-) formations [etc. to] Birth. Birth for Suffering, Suffering for Faith, Faith for Joy, Joy for Delight, Delight for Tranquillity, Tranquillity for Happiness, Happiness for Concentration, Concentration for Knowledge-and-vision-of-things-as-they-are, Knowledge-and-vision-of-things-as-they-are for Disenchantment, Disenchantment for Dispassion, Dispassion for Liberation, Liberation for Knowledge of the destruction of the cankers."

https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn12/sn12.023x.wlsh.html

for the intermediate case of non returner, those people know about the ''passion for the five strings of sensuality'', but they suck at knowing how dukkha are vinanna and namarupa,

"In the same way, I tell you, is the nutriment of physical food to be regarded. When physical food is comprehended, passion for the five strings of sensuality is comprehended. When passion for the five strings of sensuality is comprehended, there is no fetter bound by which a disciple of the noble ones would come back again to this world.

https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn12/sn12.063.than.html

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Let me count the ways ...

By seeing that there is there absolute freedom of mind (or heart);
absolute freedom of consciousness;
freedom from body;
complete absence of 'thirst' (desire, wanting);
complete absence of lust, anger and blindness;
by seeing that there is nothing there for you in the entire universe;
by being completely without ambitions, being empty of lust, anger and blindness, by not producing any signs of lust, anger and blindness;
by the complete absence of individuality-view; doubt and vascillation; the belief that good deeds, ethics and rituals can bring about the end of dukkha; wanting and wishing for pleasure; deviance (also translated: animosity, malevolance, hate, ill will); lust for material things; lust for the immaterial states; pride, fear and trembling; and blindness to the truth in the Four Truths;
By having reached freedom from things subject to time and in that freedom recognizing that this is the freedom one has been seeking and that the results will be the leaving behind of birth, seeing that one has lived the best of lives, seeing that one's duty has been done, seeing that there will be for you no more 'this side and that side' or any sort of being some sort of 'it' at some place of being 'at'.
and for a kicker (but by no means should this be understood that this is a complete list of the ways):

Here, a beggar has this perception:

'This is it!
This is the culmination!
That is, the calming of all own-making,
the resolution of all involvements,
the withering away of thirst,
dispassion,
extinction,
Nibbāna.'

http://buddhadust.net/dhamma-vinaya/bd/an/11_elevens/an11.007.olds.bd.htm

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