Have there been any Buddhist texts addressing geometry, calculation or abstract algebra?
I don't know much about the History of Mathematics.
This History of 0 (zero) mentions Pingala -- that's "Maurya or post-Maurya" era, perhaps they were mostly-all kind of Buddhists then.
I read elsewhere that, later (e.g. at the time of the Islamic invasion), it was the educated/urban/merchant class who were mostly-Buddhist -- whereas it was the rural/peasant class who were 'Hindu'. That (being merchants, trading, travelling) might imply they (i.e. the lay people/society who supported the Buddhist monastics) had uses for mathematics.
While some had schizophrenia, few had serious mood disorders.
I don't know if you might have read it, Zen and the Art of motorcycle Maintenance mentions, some instructions for assembling a bicycle,
"... I’ve a set of instructions at home which open up great realms for the improvement of
technical writing. They begin, ‘Assembly of Japanese bicycle require great peace of mind.’"
Buddhism has a lot to do with handling emotional pain. Has me wondering if mathematics might have been a point of interest. Numbers seem to be. Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, Three Marks if Existence.
I think the numbers there are to do with "list-making" -- a numbered list.
Also "analysis" -- i.e. dividing and categorising.
So instead of "there's a big problem" Buddhism gives "there are three poisons, ten fetters -- twelve nidanas -- etc."
That's not classical "mathematics" like greek geometry. It may be related to or contain (use or presume) logic -- see Catuṣkoṭi for example.
And deconstruction seems like it ought to be useful if you want to make something stop -- like taking apart a wrist-watch (which will stop it), and understanding the causes of things (like the French proverb that "to understand all is to forgive all").
I think that list-making is principally an "Abhidhamma" kind of thing -- just one example among many might be the Paṭṭhāna.
Apparently the (several) abhidhammas (of the several schools) are summaries of doctrine. One of the ways to summarise elements of doctrine is to list or index them.
Here's a collection of some of the most famous lists -- Dhamma Lists
On the other hand, a straight forward, linear, literal approach to understanding doesn't quite feel like Buddhism.
There are many forms of maths, aren't there. I don't know them all of course, it seemed to me that maths was good at taking things apart (analysis), abstraction (maybe number theory), putting things together (maybe induction) -- and inventing systems, based on sets of axioms.
And when you choose useful axioms (which e.g. match observations) then it's science.
It seems to me, I guess, that Buddhism is more like a science than mathematics -- doctrines like the four noble truths being axiomatic.
Also Buddhism kinds of warns against constructing things (like sankharas).
And maybe warns against too much deconstruction too, like if the west tradition has a subjective/objective dichotomy (these being two extremes) then buddhism teaches "the middle way" meaning "neither extreme".