There is not much info on ། and ༎. There are some notes here, but that's about it.

  • ། TIBETAN MARK SHAD: Denotes the end of a piece of text called a tshig-grub, a unit that can't be compared with English phrases or sentences.
  • ༎ TIBETAN MARK NYIS SHAD: Denotes the end of a piece of text called a don-tshan, a unit that can't be compared with English phrases or sentences. (Content authors may also just use two single shays together, if the spacing looks right)

Here says a shad and double shad are the same as Indic daṇḍa.

In metrical texts, a double daṇḍa is used to delimit verses, and a single daṇḍa to delimit a pada, line, or semi-verse. In prose, the double daṇḍa is used to mark the end of a paragraph, a story, or section.[1]

So then a nyis shad is a verse marker, essentially. No, that doesn't seem right. Because there seem to be multiple shad nested within a single nyis shad, like you would have a topic with sections nested inside of it. Or a chapter with verses.

Here we have sections (or expressions brjod-pa brjod pa) and topics don-tshan དོནཊཤན (got the tibetan from here), not sure if that's right). Googling those two words returns nothing.

The w3c goes on further to say:

Sections normally end with a shay, U+0F0D TIBETAN MARK SHAD , followed by a space. Topics (eg. headlines, verses, and longer paragraphs) are often terminated or separated with shay+space+shay [or foo། །bar].

But then they add without deeper explanation:

Unicode provides U+0F0E TIBETAN MARK NYIS SHAD as a means of regularizing the spacing between the two shad marks, which tends to be slightly bigger than a normal space. The space between the shad marks can be stretched during justification, however, and it's not clear how that would work when using NYIS SHAD.

So my question is, what is the nyis shad vs. just the shad vs. the shad-space-shad ། །. Can replace ། །? Is or ། ། a "parent" grouping element above the plain shad ?

Also, what does it mean when the text has a double nyis shad? I have seen this in a few places:

foo༎ ༎bar baz༎ ༎hello world

What does that mean?

Finally, just for reference, from my understanding, the is a shad that also marks the beginning (or end?) or a page. Please correct if wrong.

The main questions though:

  1. Are foo༎ bar and foo། །bar equivalent (the same thing)?
  2. What is foo༎ ༎bar?
  3. Are like chapters and like verses to some degree?

Thank you.

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