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https://notesonthedhamma.blogspot.com/2019/08/error-in-pali-source-941-fourth-jhana.html

excerpt: error in pali source, AN 9.41 fourth jhana impurity is sukha, not upekkha pali source is cst4. The error is on two levels.

On the doctrinal level, AN 9.41 doesn't match SN 40.4 which has the correct impurity popping up in 4th jhana, sukha.


pali source is cst4.

and BJT pali source has same error:

  1. So kho ahaṃ ānanda aparena samayena sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharāmi. Tassa mayhaṃ ānanda iminā vihārena viharato upekkhāsahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svāssa me hoti ābādho. Seyyathāpi ānanda sukhino dukkhaṃ upapajjeyya yāvadeva ābādhāya, evamevassa me upekkhāsahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti, svāssa me hoti ābādho.

The error is on two levels.

On the doctrinal level, AN 9.41 doesn't match SN 40.4 which has the correct impurity popping up in 4th jhana, sukha.

SN 40.4:

So khvāhaṃ, āvuso, sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharāmi.
And so … I was entering and remaining in the fourth jhāna.

Tassa mayhaṃ, āvuso, iminā vihārena viharato sukhasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti.
While I was in that meditation, perceptions and attentions accompanied by pleasure beset me.

AN 9.41 wrongly has

Tassa mayhaṃ, ānanda, iminā vihārena viharato upekkhāsahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho.
While I was in that meditation, perceptions and attentions accompanied by equanimous pleasure beset me, and that was an affliction for me.

Seyyathāpi, ānanda, sukhino dukkhaṃ uppajjeyya yāvadeva ābādhāya;
Suppose a happy person were to experience pain; that would be an affliction for them.

evamevassa me upekkhāsahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho.
In the same way, when perceptions and attentions accompanied by equanimous pleasure beset me, that was an affliction for me.

From STED 3rd jhana formula we know 'sukham ca kayena pati-samvedeti' is pleasure experienced with the physical body. upekkha is present in both 4th and 3rd jhana, so it can not be an impure element that intrudes upon 4th jhana. Whatever 'upekkhā-sukhe' is supposed to be, it doesn't make any sense and doesn't match the physical sukha/pleasure of 3rd jhana.

Error on sloppy editing level

The equanimous pleasure referred to, in the previous paragraph of AN 9.41 is:

Tasmā me adukkhamasukhe cittaṃ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṃ santanti passato’.
That’s why my mind isn’t eager to be without pleasure and pain, and not confident, settled, and decided about it. And it’s why I don’t see it as peaceful.’

Tassa mayhaṃ, ānanda, etadahosi:
Then I thought:

‘sace kho ahaṃ upekkhāsukhe ādīnavaṃ disvā taṃ bahulaṃ kareyyaṃ, adukkhamasukhe ānisaṃsaṃ adhigamma tamāseveyyaṃ, ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ vijjati yaṃ me adukkhamasukhe cittaṃ pakkhandeyya pasīdeyya santiṭṭheyya vimucceyya etaṃ santanti passato’.
‘Suppose that, seeing the drawbacks of equanimous pleasure, I was to cultivate that. And suppose that, realizing the benefits of being without pleasure and pain, I was to develop that. It’s possible that my mind would be eager to be without pleasure and pain; it would be confident, settled, and decided about it. And I would see it as peaceful.’

So kho ahaṃ, ānanda, aparena samayena upekkhāsukhe ādīnavaṃ disvā taṃ bahulamakāsiṃ adukkhamasukhe ānisaṃsaṃ adhigamma tamāseviṃ.
And so, after some time, I saw the drawbacks of equanimous pleasure and cultivated that, and I realized the benefits of being without pleasure and pain and developed that.

Tassa mayhaṃ, ānanda, adukkhamasukhe cittaṃ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati etaṃ santanti passato.
Then my mind was eager to be without pleasure and pain; it was confident, settled, and decided about it. I saw it as peaceful.

AN 9.34 also has same error which has a similar theme to AN 9.41, has the same pali source error

  • @frankk I copy-and-pasted the text from you blog post and formatted it for SE. Instead of side-by-side you can do line-by-line (I use two spaces at the end of a line to force a line break, you can alternatively use <br>) – ChrisW Aug 27 at 15:54
-1

AN 9.41 uses the term 'upekkhāsukhe' for the impurity of the 4th jhana. This is confirmed by AN 9.33, which says:

‘It’s when a mendicant, giving up pleasure and pain, and ending former happiness and sadness, enters and remains in the fourth absorption, without pleasure or pain, with pure equanimity and mindfulness.

‘idhāvuso, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā … pe … catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati;

That’s where equanimous bliss ceases.’

ettha upekkhāsukhaṃ nirujjhati, te ca upekkhāsukhaṃ nirodhetvā nirodhetvā viharantī’ti.

Also AN 9.42:

Furthermore, take a mendicant who, with the fading away of rapture … enters and remains in the third absorption.

Puna caparaṃ, āvuso, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā … pe … tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.

To this extent the Buddha spoke of creating an opening amid confinement in a qualified sense.

Ettāvatāpi kho, āvuso, sambādhe okāsādhigamo vutto bhagavatā pariyāyena.

But it is still confined.

Tatrāpatthi sambādho.

Confined by what?

Kiñca tattha sambādho?

Whatever equanimous bliss has not ceased is the confinement there.

Yadeva tattha upekkhāsukhaṃ aniruddhaṃ hoti, ayamettha sambādho.

Also, MN 66:

Take a mendicant who, with the fading away of rapture, enters and remains in the third absorption.

Idhudāyi, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā … pe … tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati; This belongs to the perturbable.

idampi kho ahaṃ, udāyi, iñjitasmiṃ vadāmi.

And what there belongs to the perturbable?

Kiñca tattha iñjitasmiṃ?

Whatever equanimous bliss has not ceased there is what belongs to the perturbable.

Yadeva tattha upekkhāsukhaṃ aniruddhaṃ hoti idaṃ tattha iñjitasmiṃ.

While in AN 9.41 only the term 'upekkhā' is ALSO used in 'upekkhāsahagatā', it seems 'upekkhāsahagatā' is used synonymously to refer to 'upekkhāsukhe'. In other words, there appears to be nothing important to fix.

‘Why don’t I, with the giving up of pleasure and pain, and the ending of former happiness and sadness, enter and remain in the fourth absorption, without pleasure or pain, with pure equanimity and mindfulness?’

‘yannūnāhaṃ sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti.

But my mind wasn’t eager to be without pleasure and pain; it wasn’t confident, settled, and decided about it. I didn’t see it as peaceful.

Tassa mayhaṃ, ānanda, adukkhamasukhe cittaṃ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṃ santanti passato.

Then I thought,

Tassa mayhaṃ, ānanda, etadahosi:

‘What is the cause, what is the reason why my mind isn’t eager to be without pleasure and pain, and not confident, settled, and decided about it? Why don’t I see it as peaceful?’

‘ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo, yena me adukkhamasukhe cittaṃ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṃ santanti passato’?

Then I thought,

Tassa mayhaṃ, ānanda, etadahosi:

‘I haven’t seen the drawbacks of equanimous bliss, and so I haven’t cultivated that. I haven’t realized the benefits of being without pleasure and pain, and so I haven’t developed that.

upekkhāsukhe kho me ādīnavo adiṭṭho, so ca me abahulīkato, adukkhamasukhe ca ānisaṃso anadhigato, so ca me anāsevito.

That’s why my mind isn’t eager to be without pleasure and pain, and not confident, settled, and decided about it. And it’s why I don’t see it as peaceful.’

Tasmā me adukkhamasukhe cittaṃ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṃ santanti passato’.

Then I thought,

Tassa mayhaṃ, ānanda, etadahosi:

‘Suppose that, seeing the drawbacks of equanimous bliss, I were to cultivate that. And suppose that, realizing the benefits of being without pleasure and pain, I were to develop that. It’s possible that my mind would be eager to be without pleasure and pain; it would be confident, settled, and decided about it. And I would see it as peaceful.’

‘sace kho ahaṃ upekkhāsukhe ādīnavaṃ disvā taṃ bahulaṃ kareyyaṃ, adukkhamasukhe ānisaṃsaṃ adhigamma tamāseveyyaṃ, ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ vijjati yaṃ me adukkhamasukhe cittaṃ pakkhandeyya pasīdeyya santiṭṭheyya vimucceyya etaṃ santanti passato’.

And so, after some time, I saw the drawbacks of equanimous bliss and cultivated that, and I realized the benefits of being without pleasure and pain and developed that.

So kho ahaṃ, ānanda, aparena samayena upekkhāsukhe ādīnavaṃ disvā taṃ bahulamakāsiṃ adukkhamasukhe ānisaṃsaṃ adhigamma tamāseviṃ.

Then my mind was eager to be without pleasure and pain; it was confident, settled, and decided about it. I saw it as peaceful.

Tassa mayhaṃ, ānanda, adukkhamasukhe cittaṃ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati etaṃ santanti passato.

And so, giving up pleasure and pain … I was entering and remaining in the fourth absorption.

So kho ahaṃ, ānanda, sukhassa ca pahānā … pe … catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharāmi.

While I was in that meditation, perceptions and attentions accompanied by equanimous bliss beset me, and that was an affliction for me.

Tassa mayhaṃ, ānanda, iminā vihārena viharato upekkhāsahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho.

Suppose a happy person were to experience pain; that would be an affliction for them.

Seyyathāpi, ānanda, sukhino dukkhaṃ uppajjeyya yāvadeva ābādhāya;

In the same way, when perceptions and attentions accompanied by equanimous bliss beset me, that was an affliction for me.

evamevassa me upekkhāsahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho.

Then I thought,

Tassa mayhaṃ, ānanda, etadahosi:

‘Why don’t I, going totally beyond perceptions of form, with the ending of perceptions of impingement, not focusing on perceptions of diversity, aware that “space is infinite”, enter and remain in the dimension of infinite space?’

‘yannūnāhaṃ sabbaso rūpasaññānaṃ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṃ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṃ amanasikārā “ananto ākāso”ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti.

  • "While in AN 9.41 only the term upekkhā is ALSO used in upekkhāsahagatā, it seems upekkhāsahagatā is used synonymously to refer to upekkhāsukhe. In other words, there appears to be nothing important to fix." -- If you can't figure out there's a big difference between upekkha and upekkha-sukhe, there's no point in discussing it with your further. – frankk Aug 28 at 10:41
  • This isn't a discussion forum. To repeat, AN 9.41 makes it quite clear the impurity to the 4th jhana is upekkhāsukhe. – Dhammadhatu Aug 28 at 16:55

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