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How is "becoming" (bhava) defined in the context of Dependent Co-arising?

If there is craving, will that craving always result in "becoming"?

Is there something like craving without "becoming"?

Thanks for your time and patience!

EDIT: as I made the mistake of asking more than one question in the same post, I have two different answer (1231546 and Dhammadhatu's) which dissipated my doubts.

Thanks!

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  • How is "becoming" (bhava) defined in the context of Dependent Co-arising?

it is explained as formation of various existence in the three ranges of existence;

AN 3.76 Bhava Sutta: Becoming (1)

Then Ven. Ananda went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, bowed down to him and sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, "Lord, this word, 'becoming, becoming' — to what extent is there becoming?"[1]

"Ananda, if there were no kamma ripening in the sensuality-property, would sensuality-becoming be discerned?"

"No, lord."

"Thus kamma is the field, consciousness the seed, and craving the moisture.[2] The consciousness of living beings hindered by ignorance & fettered by craving is established in/tuned to a lower property. Thus there is the production of renewed becoming in the future.

"If there were no kamma ripening in the form-property, would form-becoming be discerned?"

"No, lord."

"Thus kamma is the field, consciousness the seed, and craving the moisture. The consciousness of living beings hindered by ignorance & fettered by craving is established in/tuned to a middling property. Thus there is the production of renewed becoming in the future.

"If there were no kamma ripening in the formless-property, would formless-becoming be discerned?"

"No, lord."

"Thus kamma is the field, consciousness the seed, and craving the moisture. The consciousness of living beings hindered by ignorance & fettered by craving is established in/tuned to a refined property. Thus there is the production of renewed becoming in the future. This is how there is becoming." https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.076.than.html

  • If there is craving, will that craving always result in "becoming"?

Yes craving is always for a state with certain conditions or a state without certain conditions, either way craving for something dependent on conditions becoming like this or otherwise, becoming better or worse, good or bad etc.

If one talks about craving for the cessation of craving, such craving can be explained as being dispersive of becoming to the extent that it is for abandoning of craving and therefore becoming but still it is craving for a conditioned state, a state without certain conditions, without craving. There is nothing further after that and craving is at that point uprooted due to complete disenchantment.

Then Ven. Ananda approached the nun and, on arrival, sat down on a prepared seat. As he was sitting there, he said to the nun: "This body, sister, comes into being through food. And yet it is by relying on food that food is to be abandoned.

"This body comes into being through craving. And yet it is by relying on craving that craving is to be abandoned.https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an04/an04.159.than.html

  • Is there something like craving without "becoming"?

i am not sure what you mean.

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How is "becoming" (bhava) defined in the context of Dependent Co-arising?

There are three types of "becoming" (bhava) defined in the context of Dependent Co-arising, namely, sensual, form & formless becoming. For example, when it is read on forums: "I have attained jhana", this is an example of "form becoming".

Attachment is the condition for becoming. Attachment includes the view or theory of "self" (attavādupādānaṃ).

If there is craving, will that craving always result in "becoming"?

Craving does not always result in becoming. Note: Craving does not include thinking of "I". Craving is merely an urge, such as the mind drawn towards an attractive object. Merely the mind drawn towards or attracted to an object is craving.

For example, when the energy of lust runs through the physical body causing a sexual organ to become erect or aroused, this "energy" is not thinking or ego. It is an "energy" or "urge".

Or for example, when the mind says: "Don't eat this food" but the body keeps having the urge to reach out & grab that food, that urge is craving.

It is important to separate "craving" from "thinking" & "selfing" ("becoming") in experience. This should not be too difficult. Simply make the resolution to not eat chocolate, pizza or some unhealthy food you habitually crave. Then notice when you see that food how the craving pushes, pulls & torments the mind; even when the mind or 'self' says "No" to those foods.

Is there something like craving without "becoming"?

Craving without becoming exists although is relatively very rare. Any non-Arahant can experience craving without becoming. For example, any hungry stream-enterer knows when they mindfully eat tasty food, non-verbal craving is subtly arising, which they practise to minimize or pacify. A stream-enterer practising diligently in a monastic setting (eating one or at most two meals per day) easily knows the arising of craving without becoming.

  • Hi DD! So, how can I reconcile this answer with your answer in the last question? As the quote said: Do all forms of suffering are born from clinging to "I" and "mine"? Is there any possible arising of dukkha outside the ones born due to the clinging to self? – Brian Díaz Flores Apr 17 at 0:27
  • Hi Brian. I do not recall ever saying "craving alone" can cause dukkha. Regards – Dhammadhatu Apr 17 at 2:57
  • I'm sorry, I don't understand this answer. Where did I ask or state anything about "craving alone"? Thanks! – Brian Díaz Flores Apr 17 at 4:44
  • DD, I remember Buddhadasa saying that the optimal time for wisdom-in-action is at contact. In your post, when nama-rupa already experienced craving, contact has been surpassed and a craving towards the vedanas occured, correct? Your post was well explained, but how is this practised? How can cravings in daily life be prevented? If I make contact with sth., it's a battle between sati-sampajañña and craving. Where I then too slow? If for example, nama-rupa experiences food craving, it can give intentions to cool out these cravings (& the underlying sankharas, that is, 2nd Step) via observation – Val Apr 17 at 10:15
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    @Dhammadhatu Thanks DD! I gave thought to this for a few hours, and after reading Val's questions, everything made sense to me. Have a wonderful day! – Brian Díaz Flores Apr 17 at 21:46
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In one of his Dhamma talk, Ajahn Brahm likens becoming to the conception of a (future) plane of existence wherein a self will arise, thrive, and decay, inhabiting for a while the space of its very own ignorance.

  • Hi. I think you should include a link to an actual quote from Ajahn Brahm. – Dhammadhatu Apr 16 at 20:21
  • Probably heard in a talk about Dependent Arising from the deeper dhammā series by the Buddhist Society of Western Australia. – Fabien Todescato Apr 20 at 3:42
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The whole path, to escape from craving, requires strong craving after becoming, bhava, and knowingly leads beyond on just this path of craving, for a devoted best displayed in right desire and right effort, which is to become blameless first!

As Nyom Chris often quotes here: conceit is very needed and used to overcome conceit (the last fetter).

(Not given to let you rest in exchange, trade ans stack-increasing by a tiny door out, for those desire reasonable for such.)

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You may also want to listen to Guy Armstrong excellent 6 parts series titled Patterns of Becoming offered during that retreat.

  • I think you should quote something relevant from these talks. – Dhammadhatu Apr 16 at 20:21

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