In this article, it has mentioned that;

During the time of the Buddha there were two ways by which one could understand the Dhamma and realise the path to Nibbana. One is called “paratoghosa paccaya.” Hearing the true Dhamma from others who know it. The other is called “sammasati” or practice of meditation.

Would anyone please give me reference from Pali canon or any other book for the above statement?

  • The second is not suficent, since no sammasati when not samma ditthi (thats just a trader cheating). the first: Ghosa Sutta. AN 2 Feb 12, 2019 at 15:05
  • @Samana Johann Thank you for pointing out that. Perhaps here the word "sammasati" has another interpretation?
    – Damith
    Feb 14, 2019 at 6:25

2 Answers 2


I didn't find that phrase on sutta central. https://suttacentral.net/search?query=paratoghosa

Still it's very common in the suttas to read of someone's entering the stream at the end of a sutta. Perhaps the first time that happens is in the first sutta, SN 56.11,

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the group of five monks delighted at his words. And while this explanation was being given, there arose to Ven. Kondañña the dustless, stainless Dhamma eye: Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation.

Perhaps that's the most common way or almost the only way these days. The article you quoted said that "sammasati" is the method which the Buddha himself used (perhaps because he couldn't hear the Buddha-dhamma from someone else).

Note that "sammasati" doesn't just mean "meditation", it's also "right mindfulness" i.e. part of the noble eightfold path. So I suppose people won't complete the path without that, but they might enter the path (and I think that must be what was meant by "realise" the path).

  • Sir, the exact word I'm searching for is "Paratoghosa paccaya". Please let me know if you find that.
    – Damith
    Feb 12, 2019 at 16:03
  • As I said, I didn't find that exact word on sutta central; but people "realising the path from hearing the true Dhamma" happens frequently in the suttas.
    – ChrisW
    Feb 12, 2019 at 16:07

I could not find exactly that reference.

The closest that I can find is from SN 55.5:

What is a factor of stream-entry?”

Katamaṃ nu kho, sāriputta, sotāpattiyaṅgan”ti?

“Sir, the factors of stream-entry are associating with good people, listening to the true teaching, proper attention, and practicing in line with the teaching.”

“Sappurisasaṃsevohi, bhante, sotāpattiyaṅgaṃ, saddhammassavanaṃ sotāpattiyaṅgaṃ, yonisomanasikāro sotāpattiyaṅgaṃ, dhammānudhammappaṭipatti sotāpattiyaṅgan”ti.

Listening to the true teaching is "saddhammassavanam", which is closest to "paratoghosa".

The closest to "sammasati" would be "yonisomanasikāra" or wise reflection or proper attention.

But as you can see, there are two other factors - associating with good people and practicing in line with the teaching.

  • Sir, the exact word I'm searching for is "Paratoghosa paccaya". Please let me know if you find that.
    – Damith
    Feb 12, 2019 at 16:04

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