I strongly believe that from here, some form of guidance from a more experienced teacher could help. Preferably face to face if possible.
You have to first finalise which school you are most comfortable with, whether Theravada (South Asia, mostly Srilanka, Thailand), Vajrayana(Tibetians) or Mahayana(Zen) ( China, Japan ) (West has all).
Also, that ways people on this site will be able to guide you to exact teacher you are looking for.
Also, is there a sangha (anywhere in the world, really) that formalizes dharma teaching in some form of curriculum? I think a more structured approach could help my western mind learn dharma.
Tibetean schools has structured programs something akin to PhD's of university degrees but that will need you to learn Tibetean language.
Theravada offers best structured approach. You can have a look at Ajahn Brahm's monastery in Australia. They might have some program for you. There are some monasteries in Thailand, which offer shorttime-stay-monk-lives and teachings for westerners.
From your question it looks like Zen approach wont suit you. But still, if you are in Sweden you might want to check Plum Village in France.
I dont think there will be a curricullum for lay buddhists that can be offered by a monastery. Very often the monks will give teachings based on 'you'. But for any curriculum you will have to first choose a school. For an acedemic study an e-sangha like this site is best. Take a look at questions on book recommendations on this site.