This is from the Paṭhamaadhammasutta (AN10.113).

Katamo ca bhikkhave adhammo ca anattho ca?

Micchā-diṭṭhi, micchā-saŋkappo, micchā-vācā micchā-kammanto, micchā-ājīvo, micchā-vāyāmo, micchā-sati,micchā-samādhi, micchā-ñāṇaɱ, micchā-vimutti.

And what are not-dhamma and not-aim?

Wrong view, wrong thinking, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong living, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness, wrong concentration, wrong knowledge, wrong release.

(Found on Obo-net.)

Does anyone know what wrong release could be? Does the Buddha explain this anywhere? I can't really understand how release can be wrong. Seems to me that one is or is not released.

  • one guess is such a form of release may be relative to a prior (existing) state of being. this form of release may not be conducive to further release...
    – blue_ego
    Commented Aug 12, 2022 at 18:13
  • more likely it's associated with release following the noble 8-fold path..
    – blue_ego
    Commented Aug 13, 2022 at 0:51
  • dhammatalks.org/suttas/MN/MN29.html#mn29note03
    – blue_ego
    Commented Aug 13, 2022 at 18:52

3 Answers 3


All other releases or freedom which are not that of Nibbana (e.g. still subject to birth, aging, sickness end death), are called miccha, wrong. There are countless of them. With every action, in all ways of desire beings seeks for release. micchā-magga, the wrong way of practice leads to miccha-vimutti, wrong release (no release). The nature of wrong freedom, which is gained on and on, after certain stilling, is that it does not last, is dependend and subject to decay.

To count them all would be endless, but maybe such words like "pseudo-liberalism" or "householder-equanimity" in wordily spheres or the many kinds of Nihilism incl. based on Jhana may help. The possible most structured list of miccha-vimutti by the Sublime Buddha can be found in the Brahma Net. And here a sample of an atheist: "I live free of the guilt of sin and the fear of Hell."

"N'atthi santi param sukham" "The is no peace like (the peace) of happiness beyond" (e.g. Nibbana)"

[Note: This is a gift of Dhamma not thought for any trade, stakes or exchange for wordily gains]


I don't think it's defined in the suttas, though it's mentioned in several.

I guess it's some kind of carelessness that may arise as a result of wrong view -- perhaps "nothing matters because it's all erased when you die (annihilationism)", or, "I'm sure to go to heaven because I practice the correct rites and rituals", or, etc.

In contrast, buddha-vacana.org identifies two types of right liberation:

vimutti: emancipation, release, liberation. There are two types of liberation, explained at AN 2.32:

  1. ceto·vimutti (liberation of the mind) -- from absence of desire
  2. paññā·vimutti (liberation by wisdom) -- from absence of ignorance

Puthujjanas have created so many mistaken views, so do not expect to find a long list. Usually the Samyutta about ditthis is here http://obo.genaud.net/backmatter/indexes/sutta/sn/03_kv/idx_24_ditthisamyutta.htm

Here is how wrong view arises https://suttacentral.net/sn22.154/en/sujato which is clinging on 5 aggregates. So anything, like view, speach, samadhi, following grasping at the 5 aggregates is qualified of wrong.

The buddha explains that in the first sermon. he has his citta in samadhi but he did not know that grasping is wrong and that samadhi stemming form grasping is wrong samadhi, while the good samadhi is the samadhi based on sense restrain and relinquishment and ultimately viroga

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