To answer this question one should have a deep understanding in Abhidhamma and also clinical, medicinal expertise. I must say first that I'm not an expert in none of these areas. I'll try to answer this question as much as possible according to my understanding. Please correct me if I'm wrong.
Are the mental states of (what is generally considered to be a) disorder, like say - Bipolar disorder, Autism etc. also considered and classified in this text?
The short answer for this question is NO. But in Abhidhamma it has mentioned about ultimate truth. Each and every dhamma inside the world and outside the world are made of 82 numbers of very subtle substances called paramatta sacca. In the Great Book of Causal Relationships (Patthana Pakarana) it has mentioned how these elements interrelated and build phenomena. So if you have thorough understanding in Abhidhamma, you should be able to explain each and every phenomena. It's like if you have building blocks and you know how they can be connected and their output. Then you can explain how to build a house, train, bridge, etc... out of them.
In sentient beings in realms where all 5 aggregates (skandha) are available (pancavokara bhumi) name (nāma) and form (rūpa) are interrelated (each one dependent on the other). Most of the diseases are caused by diseased bundles of form (rūpa kalāpa). Since name and form are interrelated these diseased bundles of form may disturb the normal function of name. That's why someone gets unconsciousness when s/he met with an accident or when suffering from high fever. That's why someone lose their sight by exposing their eyes to UV radiation.
One can argue the other way around that name will affect form and leads to diseases. This is also true. That's why you get high levels of bad cholesterol (cholesterol is made of bundles of form) when you're suffering from stress (mental condition).
Is there a way out of it? Is there anyway for someone who wants to help those in deeper suffering because of this. Meditation, medication, perspective, world view etc.
There are four causes which produce form.
- Kamma (Actions)
- Citta (Consciousness)
- Utu (Heat)
- Ahara (nutriment/sustenance)
There are bundles of form in a body which are arisen with one (ekaja rūpa), two (dvija rūpa), three (tija rūpa), or four (catuja rūpa) causes above mentioned.
If the diseased bundles of form are caused by kamma, I suppose there is no cure for such diseases. Although it's not guaranteed, the only option is to try to mitigate the effect by doing as much as good deeds (kusala kamma) in this very life.
If the diseased bundles of form are caused by citta, I suppose meditation will help to cure such diseases. Counseling and maintaining a good mind always is beneficial.
If the diseased bundles of form are caused by utu, I suppose use of protectors to avoid expose to heat and use of ointments to recover diseased/damaged bundles of form will help to cure such diseases.
If the diseased bundles of form are caused by ahara, I suppose these diseases can be cured by medicines, physical exercises and changing diet.
To cure diseased dvija rūpa, tija rūpa, or catuja rūpa, a combination of above methods can be used.
Note: This is what I understood. I may be wrong but not Dhamma.