Specifically in his last life, both before enlightenment and after.
Before an enlightenment:
- bodhisatta make himself suffering by dukkarakiriyā-practicing, attakilamathānuyoga, in Mahāsaccaka-sutta.
Aggivessana, it occurred to me, what if I pressed the upper jaw on the lower jaw, with the tongue pressing on the palate pushed out, expelled and burnt up thoughts in my mind. Then even while sweat was dripping from my armpits, I pressed the upper jaw on the lower jaw, with the tongue pressing on the palate pushed out, expelled and burnt up thoughts in my mind...etc.
It is a very long with many suffering, please, look inside the link by yourself.
After an enlightenment:
- One sick, some physical body suffering, found in cīvara-khandhaka of vinaya-pitaka.
 Tena kho pana samayena bhagavato kāyo dosābhisanno hoti.
Next, the cause is when buddha's body accumulating waste product.
- Two more sicks found in D.N. Mahāparinibbāna-sutta, illness, and hematemesis.
- But when the Blessed One had entered upon the rainy season, there arose in him a severe illness, and sharp and deadly pains came upon him. And the Blessed One endured them mindfully, clearly comprehending and unperturbed. ...
- And soon after the Blessed One had eaten the meal provided by Cunda the metalworker, a dire sickness fell upon him, even hematemesis (lohitapakkhandikā), and he suffered sharp and deadly pains. But the Blessed One endured them mindfully, clearly comprehending and unperturbed.
- Another, injure found in Vinaya Saṅghabhedakhandhaka.
Tato papaṭikā uppatitvā bhagavato pāde ruhiraṃ uppādesi .
Because of broken pieces of big rocks, blood bleed out at buddha's foot.
The conclusion appears in K.N. Apadāna, too. From here, buddha said foot-ache and headache, too. This is a long quote, please see inside the link by yourself.
The idea that the Buddha had past lives is both a misinterpretation of the term 'pubbe nivasa' in the texts and a later doctrine manufactured in Buddhism (such as the Jataka Tales or Fables). The term 'pubbe nivasa' is unambiguously explained in SN 22.79 and refers to each time in the past the mind clung to one or more of the five aggregates as 'self' (i.e., 'past acquisitions').
As for getting sick & injured, this occurred to the Buddha.
In his 1st noble truth, the Buddha summarised all suffering as attachment to the five aggregates, i.e., attaching to the five aggregates as 'self'.
The idea that "sickness is suffering" is a misunderstanding of the teachings. Ordinarily, i.e., when unenlightened, sickness is suffering because it is a unpleasant experience that is a attached to. But when the physical pain of sickness is not attached to as "self", it is not suffering.
Therefore, the Buddha was free from all suffering from when he attained enlightenment at 35 years old until the termination of life at 80 years old.
For example, the scriptures say:
When the Blessed One had entered upon the rainy season, there arose in him a severe illness, and sharp and deadly pains came upon him. And the Blessed One endured them mindfully, clearly comprehending and unperturbed.
To the instances cited by the other two answers, I shall add one mentioned in the Bojjhanga Sutta (chanted as a protection - paritta very frequently). This one is definitely after enlightenment.
Ekadā dhammarājāpi gelaññenābhipīlito, cundattherena tam̐yeva bhaṇāpetvāna sādaram̐, sammoditvāna ābhāda, tamhā vuṭṭhāsi ṭhānaso...
Translation: and on one one occasion, even the Buddha himself, oppressed by sickness, had the Ven. Cunda chant the paritta respectfully to him. Having delighted in it, he then came out of his sickness...
Although the details of this particular instance are not stated, it seems to me, a different one from the other instances mentioned in this thread because such chanting is not mentioned in the other instances. Also please note that the Ven. Cunda is different from the Cunda who served the Buddha his last meal.