The word “gnana” is the very opposite on “Vinnana”. “Gnana” is Wisdom. In cultivating “gnana”, one’s avijja is reduced. Then what naturally accompanies or follows is the reduction of certain types of vinnana.
A type of gnana that one develops through the understanding of Tilakkhana is “anulöma gnana”. When one comprehends anicca, dukkha, anatta to the extent that one gets to ‘see’ this Tilakkhana, one is said to have the “anulöma nana”. This gnana helps in the removal of craving for worldly things to some extent.
A special knowledge that one gains of the workings of Pali language is “patisambidha gnana”. This is the awareness of the Syntax in the Pali language. It is the understanding of the arrangement of words and phrases to create new words. Unlike the English language, the meaning of the Pali word changes, in the way it gets used. A Pali word can have more than one meaning. A Pali word can have a conventional meaning and a deeper meaning. One who gains “patisambidha gnana” sees the deeper meaning of key words.
Another gnana that one could gain is “udayabbaya gnana”. When one develops this gnana, one can see the causes that need to be eliminated to overcome otherwise inevitable future suffering. S/he then learns of the factors relating to all knowledge about the arising and destruction of anything in this world. S/he also gains the knowledge on how to stop anything from arising in this world. This is the ‘nirodha’ aspect of things.