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In relation to the sutta SN 47.42 can you explain how you understand the following?

“With the origination of name-and-form there is the origination of mind. With the cessation of name-and-form there is the passing away of mind.

“With the origination of attention there is the origination of phenomena. With the cessation of attention, there is the passing away of phenomena.”
SN 47.42

I also wish to know the difference between four nutriments and the condition (paccaya) in dependent origination.

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Four Nutriments and Dependent Origination

4 Nutriments is what is required to sustain life. Dependent Origination (DO) describes the same from the origination point of view.

DO does not mention Edible food which is one difference, Though it is needed to sustain the body.

Craving and clinging in DO relates to volitional thought as it is I or mine who subject of craving and clinging and these volitional thoughts.

Sense impression / contact is common to both. So is consciousness.

Though the 4 Nutriments do not cover feeling explicitly they are integral part of both:

"In that manner, I say, O monks, should the nutriment sense-impression be considered. If the nutriment sense-impression is comprehended, the three kinds of feeling are thereby comprehended. And if the three kinds of feeling are comprehended, there is, I say, no further work left to do for the noble disciple.

Similarly craving which is not explicitly a part of the 4 Nutrimens but found in the explanation hence an integral part of both:

In that manner, I say, O monks, should the nutriment volitional thought be considered. If the nutriment volitional thought is comprehended, the three kinds of craving are thereby comprehended. And if the three kinds of craving are comprehended, there is, I say, no further work left to do for the noble disciple.

SN 12.63 - Puttamansa Sutta

Samudaya Sutta presents this slightly differently to Puttamansa Sutta.

This perhaps can also be viewed as a condensation of DO.

Four Nutriments in the context of Satipathana

How this relates to Satipatthana is as follows:

a monk dwells exertive, clearly knowing, mindful, observing [ body | feelings | mind | dhammas ] in the [ body | feelings | mind | dhammas ], removing covetousness and displeasure in the world

(Magga) Vibhaṅga Sutta

"Removing covetousness and displeasure in the world" means you have to be equanimous to the sensations either pleasant or unpleasant originating from: body, feelings, mind, dhammas. (This also is found in Dhātu Vibhaṅga Sutta and Titth’ayatana Sutta rendering of the Satipatthana which makes it more clearer.) In either cases (pleasant or unpleasant [or neutral]) they are due to contact. To make sure your attention is wise attention you should contemplate on impermanence also. Pahāna Sutta also mentions how you should deal with sensation, i.e., to be equanimous than reacting with craving aversion and ignorance. Wise attention, knowing the 3 Characteristic (being free from Vipallasa - see Vipallasa Sutta), displaces ignorance. Cover coming craving or ensuring than any experience (pleasant, unpleasant or neutral) does not lead to craving ensures liberation:

And if the three kinds of craving are comprehended, there is, I say, no further work left to do for the noble disciple.

Cessation of Name-Form by starving yourself. It is by understanding how consciousness arises due to fabrication. Karma / fabrication are formed from activities. This again can be overcome by not generating unwholesome roots, i.e., be equanimous to sensation seeing their impermanence.

See:

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In relation to the sutta SN 47.42 can you explain how you understand the following?


SN 47.42 is simply about standard causation (iddapaccayata) rather than about the dependent origination of suffering (paticcasamuppada). It simply states:

  • The physical body originates from physical food & passes away when it has no food.

  • Feelings originate from sense contact & pass away when there is no sense contact.

  • The citta (heart) originates from mentality & materiality & passes away when there is no mentality & materiality.

  • Understanding the Dhamma originates from attention & passes away when there is no attention.

Note: the translation "passes away" is from the Pali "atthaṅgama" thus it has a different meaning to that of 'cessation' ('nirodha'), which again shows why it is not related to dependent origination.

The fourth satipatthana, where 'dhamma' should properly be translated as 'Truth' rather than 'phenomena', is made clear in the following suttas:

Bhikkhus, this is the forerunner and precursor of the rising of the sun, that is, the dawn. So too, bhikkhus, for a bhikkhu this is the forerunner and precursor of the arising of the seven factors of enlightenment, that is, careful attention. When a bhikkhu is accomplished in careful attention, it is to be expected that he will develop and cultivate the seven factors of enlightenment.

SN 46.13


Mindfulness and clear comprehension, too, I say, have a nutriment; they are not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for mindfulness and clear comprehension? It should be said: careful attention

AN 10.61



I also wish to know the difference between four nutriments and the condition (paccaya) in dependent origination.

There are two types of four nutriments:

  • Four nutriments that support for the maintenance of 'beings' ('sattānaṃ'). SN 23.2 & SN 5.10 describe a 'being' ('satta') as a 'view' & attachment. Therefore, these four nutriments that support 'beings' develop from craving via dependent origination, as described in MN 38.

  • Four nutriments that are neutral, such as described in SN 12.63. These four nutriments enlightened ones use in 'moderation', without craving or attachment, as described in SN 12.63.

Therefore, the four nutriments appear to only relate to Dependent Origination when they support the maintenance of the self-view of 'beings' ('sattānaṃ').

When the four nutriments are used by a Buddha, they do not relate to Dependent Origination because Dependent Origination is the 'wrong path' (per SN 12.3).

To conclude, SN 47.42 is not about dependent origination & only 1/4 of it refers to nutriment.

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Before getting into what “paccaya” (pronounced “pachchayä) means in paticca samuppada (PS), let us understand why kamma is not deterministic. Kamma is only one of the five main dhammata. These five main factors are, kamma niyama, citta niyama, utu niyama, beeja niyama, and dhamma niyama. The effects of Kamma vipaka can be altered or stopped due to the influence of the other four. That is why all kamma vipaka can be made made ineffective on attaining Arahanthood.

When causes are there, corresponding effects (results) are likely if suitable conditions for the effects to take place. If one plants that seed (cause) in a the ground and provides water, nutrients, and sun light (suitable conditions), then the seed could germinate and grow to a tree (effect or the result). In order for causes to bring about corresponding effects, suitable conditions must be present. It is ONLY when suitable conditions are present, causes will bring about corresponding effects. Thus when some effect is brought about, it is called “paccuppanna“, i.e., born (“uppanna“) via suitable conditions (“paccaya“). The root causes must be there for this to occur.

For example for a seed to germinate and grow into a plant, there has to be moisture/water/rain. If the seed is there in the sahara desert with no rain, a tree is not going to appear. The seed will remain for hundreds of years until the suitable conditions appear. But if the seed gets burnt or crushed, it will not grow into a plant. Thus we can say, if and when the causes bring forth the consequences, they will be of the corresponding nature. - nothing happens without a root cause or a “hetu.”

There are four kinds of nutriments that are essential for survival and the continuation of life in Samsara. One is material or physical, while the other three are mental nutriments. We were born because we had these four nutriments and as long as we are nourished by these nutriments, life will continue in countless numbers of various existences. They are nutriment of physical food (kabalinkara ahara) gross or refined; nutriment of contact (phassa ahara) or sense impression; nutriment of intellectual intention (manosancetana ahara); and nutriment of consciousness (vinnana ahara).

Existence is nourished by these four nutriments. Therefore to go forth in this PATH, we have to outgrow ouw desire for the four nutriments. If one does not derive passion, delight and craving for the four nutriments, the consciousness will not be established. Then the mentality-materiality does not light. When mentality-materiality does not alight, there is no growth of fabrications. Where there is no growth of fabrications, there is no renewed becoming. If we dwell in the four foundations of mindfulness (satara satipatthana) we would be able to realize that all component things are anicca, dukkha, anatta, in comprehending the Tilakkhana. (in it’s True Sense of the Meaning.)

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