First of all, I think your question has gotten worse at explaining your condition through your edits (sorry!).
In Theravada Buddhism, and really I think I speak for all of Buddhism when I say, the object is to understand reality as it is. This means you actually have to understand the experience before you can "fix" it. Actually, it means once you understand the experience, there will be no need to fix it.
Saddhāya tarati oghaṃ appamādena aṇṇavaṃ,
Viriyena dukkhaṃ acceti paññāya parisujjhatīti.
With confidence one crosses the flood, with vigilance the ocean;
With effort one overcomes suffering, with wisdom one is purified.
So, first you need to purify your understanding. What is it you are exactly experiencing? What is really happening? The Buddha reminded us that understanding reality means breaking experience up into its constituent parts and seeing them just as they are (called Yathā-bhūta-ñāna-dassana). For example, in the Bahiya Sutta (Ud 6):
"diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati, sute sutamattaṃ bhavissati, mute mutamattaṃ bhavissati, viññāte viññātamattaṃ bhavissatī"ti. Evaṃ hi te bāhiya, sikkhitabbaṃ.
"In what is seen, there will be only what is seen; in what is heard, there will be only what is heard, in what is sensed, there will be only what is sensed, in what is thought, there will be only what is thought." Just so indeed should you train, Bahiya.
The Buddha explained that to the extent that Bahiya could train himself in this simple teaching, "tato tvaṃ, bāhiya, na tena" - "therefore, Bahiya, there will arise no 'you' because of that," which means that there would be no misinterpretation of the experience as "me", "mine", etc.
"To the extent," the Buddha continued, "that there arises no self," "tato tvaṃ, bāhiya, na tattha" - "to that extent, Bahiya, there will arise no 'you' in regards to that object." "To that extent," the Buddha concluded, "nevidha na huraṃ na ubhayamantarena. esevanto dukkhassa." - "there will be neither here nor there or anything in between. This indeed is the end of suffering."
So, let's examine what exactly you experienced, based on your words, in order to try and see it for what it is:
I experienced an incredibly intense emotional explosion in my chest
First of all, emotions are not in your chest, they are mental. What you experience in your chest is a physical symptom, maybe accompanying emotion, maybe not. It should be understood as it is (in our tradition, this means reminding yourself "feeling, feeling..." until it goes away).
Second, "incredibly intense" is a judgement - not bad in itself, but indicative of some emotional reaction to the experience. That too should be seen as it is ("disliking" or "upset", for example).
I experienced what can only be described as immediate and overwhelming bliss.
Bliss is either mental or physical (or both); either way, it is a feeling (vedana) and should be understood as it is ("happy, happy" or even "feeling, feeling")
My meditations were shorter, but extremely powerful (and actually became the highlights of my day).
This indicates some degree of attachment, which is a cause for addiction and should be understood as it is to stop it from escalating ("liking, liking").
I felt as if my ego wasn't quite ready to deal with the complexities of modern life, and rather than help my daily existence, this new state of mind became a hindrance.
This as well is a judgement, probably indicative of aversion. Even though a state may be objectively "bad", disliking just aggravates the condition. This should understood as it is ("disliking, disliking").
Talking to my clients on the phone, fielding their complicated questions, suddenly became a daunting task. And the part of my brain that allowed me to program websites (which is what I do for a living) was struggling to focus.
Sometimes struggling to focus on worldly things simply means you are unable to care about what has no intrinsic benefit; you may have to in that case force yourself to stop practicing in order to carry out the worldly duties as you see fit. In this case, though, it sounds like you probably have too much concentration and not enough effort. If the mind is unwieldy, inflexible, it will have trouble keeping up with reality and thus interacting with daily life. Insight meditation that focuses on mundane reality should help. If you truly are distracted (in the sense of the mind flitting to many different objects at once), then it probably has less to do with the meditation practice and more to do with your reactions to it that have led to anxiety, etc.
It was worrying.
States can't be worrying, you can just worry about them. Which is unwholesome and should be understood as it is to avoid escalating it ("worried, worried").
I didn't feel as though I was in control of these feelings, or sometimes, even myself (I remember one time talking to a friend about these new experiences, and being unable to stop myself from talking -- I literally kept interrupting him with my "insights", very unlike me).
Welcome to the world of non-self :) The Buddha said that aspects of experience are non-self, including nibbana. We simply fool ourselves into thinking we are in control, when in fact the most we can do is react (or not react, which would be better).
Interrupting your friend, on the other hand, is a sign of too much energy - probably accompanied by faith, and, as you say, insight. Energy, faith and insight can all become hindrances or imperfections of insight (vipassanupakkilesa) if you follow them without being self-aware and letting them go. It is important not to cling to any positive states that may arise; as you have learned, they can lead to problems in your daily life.
Hopefully this at least gives you some guide as to how you can better pinpoint what exactly you experienced; if you want help, you will need to be able to express what is happening on a momentary experiential basis; the present moment is just one moment, and it is the only moment that is of true importance:
Let one not go back to the past, nor worry about the future, for the
past is gone and the future unreached; but which phenomena arise here
and now, let one see clearly into them all.
This is unconquerable, this is unshakeable; knowing thus, let one so
devote oneself. Today, indeed, should one strive at the task; who
knows whether death comes tomorrow? There is no bargain to be made
with him, Death with his great army, But one who dwells thus ardently,
day and night untiringly, is said by the peaceful sage to have had a
-- The Buddha (MN 131)