How many types of meditation are there in Theravada Buddhism? Could you also provide a list of them as well.
Thank you in advance.
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At least forty:
Air or wind device
A corpse that is bloated
A corpse that is livid (has patchy discoloration)
A corpse that is festering (trickling with pus in broken places)
A corpse that is cut up
A corpse that is gnawed
A corpse that is scattered
A corpse that is hacked and scattered
A corpse that is bleeding
A corpse that is worm-infested
A corpse that is a skeleton
Contemplation of the Buddha
Contemplation of the Dhamma
Contemplation of the Sangha
Contemplation of Virtue
Contemplation of Charity
Contemplation of the Devas
Mindfulness of Death
Mindfulness of the Physical Body
Mindfulness with Breathing
Contemplation of Calmness
Sphere of Infinity of Space
Sphere of Infinite Consciousness
Sphere of No-thingness
Sphere of Neither Perception nor Non-Perception
Contemplation of the loathsomeness of food
Analysis of the four physical elements
The meditation subjects are called Kammaṭṭhāna. There are 40 of them.
Most of these are collected in the following books:
Also you might want to read Knowing and Seeing by Pa Auk Sayadaw which glosses over many of matter.
Looking at the size of these manual it is difficult to give introduction to all in one answer.
But in ascese all have the similar goal. That is to:
with ever way you understand better.
In studying meditation from any of the above sources it is wise to treat them as secondary source and compair with the Tripitaka which is the primary source.