Words such as 'material' & 'immaterial' are just translations. It is probably best to not impute our own ideas onto these translations, particularly the idea that 'materiality' & 'immateriality' are independent of eachother.
For example, meditators can enter into the 'immaterial jhanas' where the physical body cannot be felt anymore. However, the mind of the meditator is still dependent upon its physical body.
Regarding the word 'material' or 'rupa', this is pointing to the nature of physical things, such as the physical body. For example, about 'rupa', the Pali scriptures have certain descriptions of 'rupa' that do not pertain to 'consciousness', such as:
And why do you call it 'form' (rupa)? Because it is afflicted (ruppati), thus it is called 'form.' Afflicted with what? With cold & heat & hunger & thirst, with the touch of flies, mosquitoes, wind, sun & reptiles. Because it is afflicted, it is called form. (Khajjaniya Sutta.)
...the body — endowed with form, composed of the four primary elements, born from mother & father, nourished with rice & porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing, dissolution & dispersion — is eaten by crows, vultures, hawks, dogs, hyenas or all sorts of creatures... (Mahanama Sutta.)
The four great elements, bhikkhu, are the cause and condition for the manifestation of the form aggregate. (Puṇṇamā Sutta.)
As for consciousness, it is defined as follows:
And why do you call it 'consciousness'? Because it cognizes, thus it is called consciousness. What does it cognize? It cognizes what is sour, bitter, pungent, sweet, alkaline, non-alkaline, salty & unsalty. Because it cognizes, it is called consciousness. (Khajjaniya Sutta.)
The Pali suttas state in many places that there can be no arising of consciousness independent of a physical body &/or sense organs (e.g. MN 38, SN 22.53, SN 12.67, SN 22.82, etc).
The Pali scriptures do not teach consciousness transmigrates from life to life. Ideas of re-linking or a stream of consciousness were created by later-day Buddhist philosophers & scholars. In MN 38, the bhikkhu Sati was severely reprimanded, admonished & censured by the Lord Buddha for holding such a pernicious viewpoint that consciousness transmigrates.
In conclusion, if science is right that consciousness arises from chemicals and nerves in the human brain, this will not disprove what the Buddha taught but, to the contrary, will affirm what the Buddha taught about consciousness.
However, it will disprove what the majority of Buddhists believe about Buddhism.
Note: Although consciousness may arise from chemicals & nerves, chemicals & nerves are not the operation of consciousness. Chemicals & nerves are 'rupa' where as 'consciousness' is 'knowing' or 'cognition'. Thus, consciousness is not chemicals & nerves, which is why consciousness is immaterial. The immaterial (nama) arises from the material (rupa).
Mind-and-body (nama-rupa) is the cause and condition for the manifestation of the consciousness aggregate. SN 22.82