I'm sure that at some point Shakyamuni talked about fear, but I am wondering more specifically if he had listed something like "the five types of fear" or something like that(e.g. Four noble truths, ten worlds, ten factors, five eyes).
In the Cātumā Sutta (Majjhima Nikāya, 67) Buddha talks about four types of fear in the case of Bhikkus just as there are dangers and hazards in a sea like stormy waves, crocodiles, whirlpools, and sharks. Those four fears were temper (ill will against those who instruct them and guide them); gluttony (dissatisfaction with training rules such as those concerning taking of meals), women and pleasures of senses.
Also Buddha spoke of four reasons as to why we fear death. They are: attachment to the body, attachment to sensual pleasures; knowledge that we’ve done cruelty to others and the resulting fear that after death we’ll have to face consequences for it, and lastly the fear of not having seen the true Dhamma, or for still having doubts about its truth.
Then in the Sangaha Bala Sutta, (The Discourse on the Powers (in connection with conciliation) Aṇguttara Nikāka 9.5) Buddha talks about how to free yourself from five common fears. http://www.themindingcentre.org/dharmafarer/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/2.21-Sangaha-Bala-S-a9.5-piya.pdf
Those five fears are the fear of livelihood; ājīvika bhaya (2) the fear of disrepute; asiloka bhaya (3) the fear of nervousness before an assembly; parisa,sārajja bhaya (4) the fear of death; and maraṇa bhaya (5) the fear of a bad destiny [rebirth]. duggati bhaya
Another Sutta that talks about fear is ‘Pancha Bhayavera Sutta’ or the discourse on the five fears and hates. [Disadvantages of breaking the Five Precepts] (Anguttara Nikaya 5.174) http://www.themindingcentre.org/dharmafarer/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/6.4-Vera-S-a05.174-piya.pdf
A noble disciple will overcome these five factors that caused fear and hate. The first is to abstain from killing. The second is to abstain from stealing. The third is to abstain from wrongful sexual conduct. The fourth factor is to abstain from falsehood. The last factor is to live refraining from intoxicants.
The Dutiya Anagata-bhayani Suttam (The Discourses on Future Dangers ) is another of interest: http://obo.genaud.net/dhamma-vinaya/ati/an/05_fives/an05.078.than.ati.htm
"Monks, these five future dangers, unarisen at present, will arise in the future. Be alert to them and, being alert, work to get rid of them. Which five? …
"There will be, in the course of the future, monks undeveloped in body, undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in mind, undeveloped in discernment. They — being undeveloped in body, undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in mind, undeveloped in discernment — will give full ordination to others and will not be able to discipline them in heightened virtue, heightened mind, heightened discernment. These too will then be undeveloped in body... virtue... mind... discernment. They — being undeveloped in body... virtue... mind... discernment — will give full ordination to still others and will not be able to discipline them in heightened virtue, heightened mind, heightened discernment. These too will then be undeveloped in body... virtue... mind... discernment. Thus from corrupt Dhamma comes corrupt discipline; from corrupt discipline, corrupt Dhamma.
There are, monks, four powers. The power of wisdom, the power of energy, the power of an unblemished life and the power of benevolence....Now, monks, a noble disciple endowed with these four powers has left behind five fears: the fear for his livelihood, the fear of disrepute, the fear of embarrassment in assemblies, the fear of death and the fear of an unhappy future destiny.