I think of the Sigalovada Sutta as summary of practical morality for lay people:
- Consider all the various types of people around you in society (the "six directions")
- Don't harm people around you, instead protect and make peace with them
- Don't squander wealth, but spend it and save it for the various purposes for which it should be spent and saved
- Have good-hearted friends, rather than enemies disguised as friends
I also recommend a book, The Buddha's Teachings on Prosperity by Bikkhu Basnagoda Rahula. It's a selection or anthology of suttas from the Pali canon, divided into various chapters by topic (preview the table of contents here). Many or even most of the suttas in the whole canon are for monks, so I found that this book (which selects those intended for lay people) gave quite a different impression of what lay life is supposed to be.
This article, Dhamma, says that "the Buddha's six-stage gradual training" begins with Generosity.
For more about Buddhist lay morality, consider the Five (or Eight or more) Precepts (including "don't steal" or "take what's not given", and "don't lie"), and the three factors (right speech, action, and livehood) from the "Virtue" division of the Noble Eightfold Path.
The advice for "Right Speech" is more detailed than the advice for a lay-person's Right Livelihood. If you're in a "very competitive" environment there may be a risk that people around you speak in harsh or cruel ways: maybe that (right speech versus wrong speech) is something to beware of more than simply earning a livelihood.
There are various types of wrong livelihood listed, and we're told to give up or renounce "false (or wrong) livelihood" which presumably includes lying and deception.
In short, is having a goal of seeking financial success and money considered an attachment to the world?
I think so, yes, but it isn't everyone who wants to be or who can be a monk (monks have no livelihood at all as such, and live via the generosity of laypeople).
Still, Buddhism (especially later Buddhism e.g. Mahayana rather than Theravada) has doctrine that includes "skillful means". Many non-Buddhist cultures think you're clever if you're rich but not attached to wealth. I can't confirm from my own experience whether that's possible in practice, though there are examples in the literature of rich people being generous.
Also your intention matters. If you're earning money to spend on showing off, to increase your pride, to spend on "recreational" drugs, etc., maybe that's not wise. If you're earning money to help other people or to repay your debts to society then maybe that's not unwise (and even if it may be attachment, isn't the same especially unskillful kind of attachment).
The Zen story Publishing the Sutras seems to me an example of non-attachment within attachment: attachment (or dedication) to collecting money with a specific end in mind, and non-attachment in being able to renounce or change that goal if circumstances change.
It's presumably easy, though, to spend your life on the accumulation of money.
There are incidentally different schools or sects of Buddhism.
One of the newer ones is Soka Gakkai International (SGI) -- I know next to nothing about them but perhaps they're quite keen on prosperity. I am probably misrepresenting them (you should find out for yourself, if you're interested) but I provisionally categorize it as a Buddhist version of Prosperity theology.