Do Buddhists accept the modern view of the universe
I was about to answer, "Yes, I do": but in a way I don't.
By that I mean that in fact I go about my daily life without thinking of astronomy (in fact I go all year without it, except a handful of moments per year if I think about the tides or an equinox or etc.).
As it happened I studied the maths of astrophysics at university and so I suppose I more-or-less understand what scientists do, and I don't disagree with that on the whole (though I wouldn't make a religion of it).
But a "view" I think is something more: a "view" IMO is something you actually/often think about, something you use to measure experience, to try to understand or to make sense of existence: examples of "views" include right view (samma ditthi) and identity view (sakkāya-diṭṭhi).
Compared with these examples of a "view" (or using this kind of understanding of the word "view") I think that maybe I don't, in practice, have a modern "view" of "the universe" ... except, if or when I think about it, I suppose that the "modern view of the universe" is alright in its place, which is in the minds of astronomers and so on who care about that kind of thing.
In summary I probably "accept" it as a thing (a coherent belief-system with all its own rules and its own limitations too), but I don't spend much time thinking about it.
If so, how do Buddhists reconcile this modern view of the universe with the 31 lokas and their other-worldly inhabitants?
IMO the lokas are a description of morality and psychological states (i.e. it's a descriptions of a model of states attained by the mind).
FWIW I actually don't think much (i.e. I don't think often) about the description of the 31 lokas either.
But I thought that the simple description in this answer was brilliant: I have been thinking about that.
Do Buddhists feel that if the Buddha and Buddhist gurus did not speak or think about some things (for instance, about "the modern view of the universe" such as galaxies or solar systems), maybe those things aren't worth speaking or thinking about?
Yes that's pretty well the case, i.e. I think that's what I felt about it.
IMO perhaps "the modern view of the universe" is a category of "right livelihood" for astronomers and geophysicists and navigators etc.
However, given the Simsapa Sutta and the fact that the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta was the first Buddha's first lesson, IMO it's "stress and the ending of stress" that's relatively important in Buddhism.