What are Kusala roots, how are they determined, what effects do they have? And where in the Buddha's teaching are they mentioned? Thank you.
The 'three poisons', or three 'unwholesome roots' (akusala-mūla), are named as ignorance, attachment, and aversion — and the "wholesome roots" are their opposites:
Opposite wholesome qualities
The three wholesome mental factors that are identified as the opposites of the three poisons are:
- amoha (non-bewilderment); prajna (wisdom)
- alobha (non-attachment)
- adveṣa (non-aggression, lack of hatred); mettā (loving-kindness)
The principal aim of the Buddhist path is to cultivate these and related positive qualities.
They're mentioned in for example, the Sammaditthi Sutta:
- "And what is the root of the wholesome? Non-greed is a root of the wholesome; non-hate is a root of the wholesome; non-delusion is a root of the wholesome. This is called the root of the wholesome.