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What are Kusala roots, how are they determined, what effects do they have? And where in the Buddha's teaching are they mentioned? Thank you.

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The 'three poisons', or three 'unwholesome roots' (akusala-mūla), are named as ignorance, attachment, and aversion — and the "wholesome roots" are their opposites:

Opposite wholesome qualities

The three wholesome mental factors that are identified as the opposites of the three poisons are:

  • amoha (non-bewilderment); prajna (wisdom)
  • alobha (non-attachment)
  • adveṣa (non-aggression, lack of hatred); mettā (loving-kindness)

The principal aim of the Buddhist path is to cultivate these and related positive qualities.

They're mentioned in for example, the Sammaditthi Sutta:

  1. "And what is the root of the wholesome? Non-greed is a root of the wholesome; non-hate is a root of the wholesome; non-delusion is a root of the wholesome. This is called the root of the wholesome.

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